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The Sumerian Religion is a term for the joint religion practised in the region of Mesopotamia. It's gods are partially recognised by Elamite Religion and so both Sumerian and Elamite religious belief systems are incorporated into the daily workings of the Empire and are treated as fact by the Imperial authorities.

The various religious differences were amalgamated over the centuries to form a semi accepted cannon, resulting in more then one god sharing the same function.

In religious and astronomic and astrological texts, the night sky is called "The Shinning Tablet with sparkling stars" (dub-mul-an-kug) and "The Heavenly Writing" (Šitir šame).


Contents

The Gods[]

  • The head of the Sumerian Pantheon is the Sky God Anu. Called "The King of All Lands", He is, according to the Akkadian interpretation, the son of Uraš and Ninuraš. He is the god who elevates the Gods to their position and grants them power, the anûtu. He inhabits the highest level of heaven, made from luludānitu, a reddish stone. He is the husband of (f) Uraš, Ki and Antu, each being originally his sole wife in different religious traditions. He is the father of Adad, Enki, Šara, Pabilsag and Erra, Amurru/Martu, Saman, Baba, Gatumdag, Nanaya, Nidaba, Ninsumun, Ninkarrak, Ninmug, Ninnibru, Ningikuga and Sadarnunna. He also fathered the Demon Goddess Lamaštu and the nine Asakku Gods, Abbagula, A-Eridu, Auri, Equ, Kušu, Latarak, Lugal-Edina, Muhra and Silakku.
  • Aba, Goddess in the entourage of Amurru.
  • Ababa, deity of Umma.
  • Abakuya, Goddess of the temple of Bel-šarru.
  • Abalimar, deity in the circle of Ištar.
  • Abaralah, son of the 30th day, son of Enmešarra
  • Abašušu, Female Messenger of Ištar.
  • Abbagula, "of the wall", Asakku-Demon God, son of Anu.
  • Abelu, son of Nanna/Sin.
  • Abetura.
  • Abgirnun
  • Abkaš
  • Abkar, God associated with Nanna.
  • Abmunzerkiʾaŋ, daughter of Gayayu.
  • Abnerra, deity in the entourage of Ningal
  • Abšagilana, ridu of Šamaš
  • Abšušu, Deity of the Temple of Zarpanit
  • Abtagigi, Female Messenger of Ištar.
  • Abu God of plants. A son of Ninhursag, born along with his six siblings to cure the illness of Enki.
  • Abu, Gatekeeper of the Esagila
  • Abukinannaedinu, Shepherd of Nanna
  • Abunumunmundudu, daughter of Gayayu.
  • Adad/Iškur is a god of storms and justice. He is the son of Anu, twin brother of Enki. His mother is Uraš. He is the husband of Medimša, Šala, Šuzabarkug, Mušmehuš, Enmelulu, Medimtum and Kinnusum. Father of Gibil, Uṣur-amatsu and Apladad and of the sisters Šubanuna, Menunesi and Namašmaš. He commands the Evil Days, releasing them from the sky at his will.
  • Adana
  • Adapa, Deified Sage.
  • Adakber, God of the Fisherman
  • Addugnun , Advisor of Sadarnunna
  • Adešu, Goddess
  • Adgar-kidu, wide of Amurru.
  • Adgirhaš, son of Enmešarra.
  • Adug, deity of the sweet waters
  • Aduhi
  • A-Eridu, Asakku-demon, Son of Anu.
  • Agagigduga, god of sickness associated with Šulpae.
  • Agašaya, war Goddess.
  • Agimah, Baker of Ninmah/Dingirmah
  • Aginsigeš, God, child of Ninmarki.
  • Aginzamanuš, God, child of Ninmarki.
  • Agir, Divine Gatekeeper of the Šamaš Temple
  • Agu, the deified Tiara
  • Agubba, God of the holy Water, Keeper of the Pure rites of Eridu, husband of Etaedde.
  • Agudu, Guardian of the city of Aššur
  • Aguni
  • AheLUL, Son of Ninšubur.
  • Ahlamayitu, Goddess from Uruk and Sippar.
  • Aihubšan, deity of Hubšan
  • Aiištum, Divine Queen of Kish
  • Aiitu, Deity of the Anu-Adad Temple of Aššur
  • Alala, Primeval Deity, husband of Belili, father of E-kur and Gara. Son of Alala.Alam and Belili.Alam.
  • Alala.Alam, Primeval Deity, husband of Belili.Alam, father of Alala and Belili, son of Enurula and Ninurula.
  • Aktuppītum, Goddess of the city Kiritab of Isin.
  • Alad, Udug of the Ekur.
  • Aladšaga, Udug of the Ekur.
  • Alammuš, Vizier of Nanna, husband of Ninurim
  • Alapin
  • Alimdurah, god associated with Adad.
  • Alla, "king of the courtyard", minister of Ningišzida
  • Almanu, God, consort of Išhara.
  • Almuš, oath deity of Mari.
  • Alšag
  • Aluru
  • Amaea, child of Ninmah.
  • Ama-arazu, Goddess, mother of Ninkiriamaša.
  • Ama-emene-iminabi, deity in the entouage of Ištar
  • Ama-geštin, Wine Goddess of Lagash.
  • Amahtuku, warrior of Ningublaga.
  • A-MAL, God of Agade
  • Amamasiagga, Earth Goddess, sister of Ninlil
  • Amanumudib, deity in the entourage of Nanše.
  • Amanirana, child of Ninmah.
  • Amanunsi, Messenger of Ištar.
  • Amar
  • Amaratagage, deity in the entourage of Nanna
  • Amarra-he'ea, daughter of Nanna.
  • Amarrazu, daughter of Nanna, "suppiant genie of the cella".
  • Amarsuena, the calve of Adad.
  • Amaršuba, warrior of Nanna, son of Ninmarki.
  • Amasagnul/Amasagnudi. Goddess of Fertility, wife of Papsukkal.
  • Amašilama, daughter of Ninazu, sister of Labaršilama and Ningišzida.
  • Ama-šud-de-imin, Messenger of Ištar.
  • Amatukansi, deity in the entourage of Gula/Ninkarrak
  • Amatur, deity in the entourage of Gula/Ninkarrak
  • Ama-uru, Goddess, "Mother of the City"
  • Amašuhalbi, deity in the entourage of Gula/Ninkarrak.
  • Amautu, deity in the entourage of Gula/Ninkarrak.
  • Amgalnun, Storm Deity, Tutelary Deity of Gutir.
  • Amma-Kurkur, female Gate Keeper of Ereškigal, part monkey, gazelle, fish, sheep, dog and human.
  • Amurru/Martu The West Wind, a God of the Ammorites, son of Anu, husband of Adgar-kidu, Ašrat and Innin-galga-sud. "Ilu Amurru", or just "Amurru". Called "Lord of the Mountain", "He who dwells on the Pure mountain", "Bariqu" (Hurler of the Thunderbolt), brother of Šadu, Šuttu and Ištanu. "The the West wind is mightier than the man living there."
  • Angir, Gatekeeper of the Ebabbar
  • Anhiliba, Warrior of Nanna.
  • Anigal, deity of Ur
  • Animkurranen, Utukku of Bau/Baba
  • Anmea, child of Ninmah.
  • Annašargubba, deity in the entourage of Nanna/Sin
  • Annunitum, Warrior Goddess, daughter of Enlil, tutelary deity of Sippar-Amnanum.
  • Anšar, one of the Primeval Deities, husband of Kišar, father of Anšargal and Kišargal. Son of Enšar and Ninšar.
  • Anšargal, one of the Primeval Deities, husband of Kišargal, father of Uraš and Ninuraš, son of Anšar and Kišar.
  • Antasurra, oxe of Anu.
  • Antu, Goddess in Uruk, wife of Anu.
  • Apladad, Son of Adad, husband of Gabra, worshipped in the Middle Euphrates, cult centre in the city of Kannu.
  • Ara, Vizier of Ea.
  • Aramiš
  • Arazu, god of completed construction.
  • Ardalah, messenger of Ištar
  • Aritu, Goddess, associated with the planet Venus
  • Asalluhi: God of incantations, son of Enki.
  • Asaru, minor god of incantations. Worshipped at Kuara, husband of Ninehama.
  • Asilal, deity of Uruk
  • Asukukusiana, minor deity.
  • Asum, God of Mari.
  • AŠ-paphuš, counsellor of Pap-nigin-gara.
  • Ašanugi'e/Igenugi'e, Messenger of Ištar.
  • Ašab
  • Ašanta, Gatekeeper of Dingirmah
  • AŠdah, Standing God of the Ekur.
  • Ašdu
  • Ašgi, warrior God, son of Ninlil
  • Aškaʾitu, deity in the entourage of Ištar.
  • Ašnan Goddess of Grain, created by the Annunaki together with her brother Lahar.
  • Ašpap/Ašpaphuš
  • Ašrat, Goddess, wife of Amurru.
  • Aššur: God of the City of Aššur. Husband of Mullissu, Aššuritu and Šerua. Father of Zababa.
  • Aššuritu, Goddess associated with Ištar, wife of Aššur.
  • Aštah, divine servant of the Ekur
  • Aštamer
  • Ašubdudu
  • Ašudlagab
  • Ataba
  • Atud, deity of the birth water
  • Atugula, deity in the entourage of Dingirmah/Ninmah
  • Aturiki, Official of Edina.
  • Atutur
  • Auri, Asakku, son of Anu.
  • Aya, Goddess of Light and the Dawn, wife of Utu.
  • Azia
  • Azimua, healing Goddess, daughter of Ninhursag, born along with her six siblings to cure the illness of Enki. Wife of Ningišzida.
  • Azu
  • Baba Patron Goddess of Girsu, also called Bau. Called "The Beautifull Woman", invoked as a protective spirit. Wife of Ninurta. Mother of Šulšagana, Igalima, Zazaru, Impae, Urenuntaea, Gurmu, Zarmu, Hešagga and Hegirnunnu . The Ereš-diĝir (High Priestess) of Baba in Lagaš is traditonally the wife of the local King. Her main Temple is Girsu is the Etarsirsir.
  • Babadulda
  • Bahar-enunzaku, crafstman god.
  • Bahatu
  • Banitu, Creation Goddess, also called Nar-Banitu and Harru-ša-Banitu.
  • Balagedirig, Advisor of Nusku
  • Balagudda
  • Bana
  • Banengubašag, Utukku of Gula/Ninkarrak
  • Bankùlá, Tutelary God of Kibratu.
  • Bannimgir
  • Banu-parak-šimati, Builder of the Dais of Destinies.
  • Barama, Goddess of Ebla, wife of Kura.
  • Ba'raqa.
  • BaragsigaNibru, Small Shrine official of Ninurta.
  • Barbarra, Wolf God.
  • Baremah, Divine Throne Room of the Emah
  • Bariritu, Goddess of Uruk.
  • Barra, son of Enki
  • Barsigga, Divine Chamber of Ninurta
  • Baruqu
  • Barulegarra, god in the entourage of Šulpa'e.
  • Bašmu, Vizier of Tišpak
  • Baštum, Messenger of Ištar.
  • Baza
  • Bel, Deified Emblem of the Eanna Temple.
  • Bel-Aliya, Divine Mayor of Larsa.
  • Bel-Gašir, Tutelary God of Shaduppum, God of Justice.
  • Belili, wife of Alala
  • Belili.Alam wife of Alala.Alam
  • Bel-labre, "God of the Ancients", god of the city Ganina
  • Bel-Sa-Nasru, God of Uruk.
  • Bel-šaru, God.
  • Bel-Uri, Demon God, Demon of Stomach Sickness.
  • Belat-Pale, "Mistress of the Pin", a Goddess of Childbirth in the entourage of Gula/Ninkarrak.
  • Belat-Šuhnir, Goddess from Eshnunna
  • Belat-Teraban, Goddess from Eshnunna.
  • Belatnagud
  • Belet-balati, Mistress-of-Life,
  • Belet-Beri, Goddess at Mari, hypostasis of Ištar.
  • Belet-Eanna, Goddess of Udannu in Uruk.
  • Belet-hisari, Goddess from Mari.
  • Belet-Nina
  • Belet-Seri, "Scribe of the Earth". Underworld Goddess who records the dead entering the underworld, as well as human deeds in life and advises Ereškigal
  • Belit-turri, one of the Ublilla deities of the Court of Inanna
  • Beltu-ša-Reš, Goddess from Uruk.
  • Bibbu - "Wild Sheep", Butcher of the Netherworld.
  • Bilulu, Goddess of rivers and canals, wife of Enbilulu, mother of Ĝirĝire.
  • Bi'lulutu
  • Bindugbaša, Protective deity in the entourage of Gula/Ninkarrak.
  • Biŋirihuš, "the striver", god of the Engur.
  • Birdu Underworld God, husband of Manungal.
  • Birgal
  • Birua, "Ištar of the Suteans"
  • Bitšemi, Oxe of Anu.
  • Bizilla, daughter of Nanaya.
  • Bubu
  • Bulala, underworld deity of Ubasi
  • Bulu
  • Bunene, Vizier of Advice of Šamaš
  • Bur
  • Burdazi
  • Burnunetasa, son of Ea.
  • Burukaš, Divine Brewer of Keš, son of Ninmah.
  • Buruššasudsu, daughter of Ninmah
  • Buunududu
  • Da
  • Dabir, Guardain God of the city of Ebla
  • Dada, Messenger of Ištar.
  • Da-da, one of the Three Men of the Door Bolt.
  • Dadagula, divine musician
  • Dad-muštum, daughter of Nergal.
  • Dadudu
  • Daga
  • Dagal
  • Dagir
  • Daglanu
  • Dagon, a deity of Semitic origin, connected with funerary rights and grain, and guardian god of Tuttul. Husband of Išhara.
  • Daiktu
  • Dakiu
  • Dalhamun, horse-driver of Šamaš.
  • Dallalile
  • Dalududu, Messenger of Ištar.
  • Dam-ukug, secretary of the E-uršaba temple of Lisin.
  • Damkina/Damgalnunna, wife of Enki, mother of Marduk, Enbilulu, Nanše, Asalluhi and Adapa.
  • Dammi, Tutelary Deity of Dugina.
  • Damu is a healing God son of Nikarak and Pabilsag.
  • Dan-Bitim, God from Malgium, escort lion of Ulmaššitum.
  • Dani
  • Dapar, mountain God.
  • Dar
  • Dari, Primeval Deity of time/eternity, wife of Duri
  • Darahalhal
  • Daratu
  • Darma
  • Darridu
  • Dikud, Judgement God, attendant deity of the Ebabbar Temple at Sippar.
  • Dikudanki, warrior of Šamaš.
  • Dikudsisa, warrior of Šamaš.
  • Dimnauš
  • Dimpikug, Chair-Bearer of the Netherworld
  • Dipara, bull god
  • Diritum, Goddess of Mari
  • Dub
  • Dubigi
  • Dubkur
  • Dudaša
  • Dudu, Messenger of Ištar.
  • Dudugarturka
  • Duengal, goddess
  • Dugabšuʾagadeʾibgi, attendant deity of the Ebabbar Temple at Sippar.
  • Dugabšugigi, attendant deity of the Ebabbar Temple at Sippar.
  • Duganagatil, warrior of Šamaš.
  • Dugezen
  • Duggia
  • Dugu
  • Dugudlal, attendant deity of the Ebabbar
  • Dukuga, god of the heavenly throne.
  • Dulum, Chore, Vizier of Manungal.
  • Dumugir, god associated with Nanna.
  • Dumuzi-Abzu Goddess of fertility, patron goddess of Kinirša.
  • Dummuzi God of Food and Vegetation. Ritually dies after the Summer solstice. His staff is the ram headed shepherd's staff, the šibirru.
  • Dumu
  • Dumudagal
  • Dumununa, god associated with Nanna.
  • Dumusag
  • Dunga, Great Singer of Enlil. Husband of KAduggalalbi.
  • DuniKAL, daughter of Nusku, wife of Inimanizi.
  • Dunpaamaša, Deity of the Emah
  • Dunurra
  • Duri, Primeval Deity of Time/eternity, husband of Dari, father of Enšar and Ninšar, son of Lahma and Lahama.
  • Durlul
  • Durunna, oxe of Anu
  • Dutilla
  • Duzagaš, deity of the Hana
  • Earu, oxe of Damkina/Damgalnunna
  • Ebih, mountain god.
  • Ebitu
  • Eda, Interpreter of Ištar.
  • Ede, deity of Umma
  • Edina
  • Edinmes
  • Edinnaimsumma
  • Edu
  • Eduggadugga
  • Egalazu
  • Egaludumesmesengab
  • Egime, daughted of Dingirmah, in the entourage of Dummuzi
  • Egir, underworld deity
  • Egubiduga, The Ghost of the Temple (of Anu)
  • Ekid, God associated with Šamaš.
  • Ekisaggalamma
  • E-kur, Primeval Deity, husband of Gara, father of Lahma and Lahama, son of Alala and Belili.
  • Ekurabsa, Advisor of Ninmah.
  • Ekurrisi
  • Ekuritum
  • Elalanna
  • Elali
  • Elamatum, daughter of Ereškigal.
  • Elladara, deity in the entourage of Šumugan
  • Ellamesi, wife of Šumugan
  • Emagarqabuša
  • Emeda, god, child of Ninmarki.
  • Emesh, God of vegetation.
  • Ena
  • Enagasi, God
  • Enamaš, Ancestor of Enlil, son of Enkur, husband of Ninamaš, father of Enkingal and Ninkingal.
  • Enanna, The Lord of Heaven, Ancestor of Enlil, son of Enkugal, husband of Ninanna, father of En-utila and Nin-utila.
  • Enbaragesi, Gatekeeper of Dingirmah.
  • Enbilnun
  • Enbilulu,/Epadun, God of rivers and cannals, son of Enki and Damkina, husband of Bilulu.
  • Enbir
  • Enbududu, son of Ninmarki, also called Enbururu.
  • Enbul, "Son of the Ešaba"
  • Enbulug, Ancestor of Enlil, son of Enda, husband of Ninbulug, father of Enhal and Ninhal.
  • Enda, Ancestor of Enlil, son of Endu, husband of Ninda, father of Enbulug and Ninbulug.
  • Endagga, God, husband of Nintinugga.
  • Endani
  • Endu, Ancestor of Enlil, son of Enlu, husband of Nindu, father of Enda and Ninda.
  • Endukutaede, Anu's baker.
  • Endukuga, Gate Keeper of the Netherworld, son of Enindašuruma, Father and Ancestor of Enlil, husband of Nindukuga, brother of Enmešarra.
  • Endul
  • Endumušanna
  • Enedinna, Underworld God, Lord of the Steppe
  • Enedu
  • Enegal
  • Engallah, Underworld deity
  • Engara, Chief Herdsman of Anu
  • Engaraš, Ancestor of Enlil, son of Enug, husband of Ningaraš, father of En-šar and Nin-Šar.
  • Engegengen, Guardian of Aššur
  • Endušuba, Gate Keeper of the Netherworld.
  • Engal-Dudu, Divine Herald.
  • Enganu, kingal-official of Šamaš
  • Engu
  • Enguburra
  • Engur
  • Engurra, utukku of Baba/Bau
  • Engušea
  • Enhal, Ancestor of Enlil, son of Enbulug, husband of Ninhal, father of Enug and Ninug.
  • Enhulnun
  • Enhungadur, Sukkal of justice
  • Enkingal, Ancestor of Enlil, son of Enamaš, husband of Ninkingal, father of Enkugal and Ninkugal
  • Enkugal, Ancestor of Enlil, son of Enkingal, husband of Ninkugal, father of Enanna and Ninanna.
  • Enlu, Ancestor of Enlil, son of Enmul, husband of Ninlu, father of Endu and Nindu.
  • Enmetešušu, Chair Carrier of Baba/Bau
  • Ennunsilimma, Inquirer of Anu.
  • Ennununuzkidgal, in the entourage of Šamaš
  • Enpa
  • Enpi, The Gate Keeper of Aššur
  • Enpipi, Underworld deity
  • Ensaga
  • Enimdugga, "The Good Word"
  • Enidimanki, God associated with Šamaš.
  • Enimekal
  • Enimma
  • Enimšar.
  • Enirudda.
  • Enkalagga.
  • Enki/Ea/Nudimmud/Endarabanda/Enzuab, God of Wisdom and Magic. Resides in the subterranean ocean. Creator of humanity. Son of Anu, twin brother of Adad. Husband of Damkina, with whom he fathered Marduk, Enbilulu, Nanše, Asalluhi and Adapa. With Ninhursag he fathered Ninmu. And with Ninmu he fathered Ninkurra, and with Ninkurra he fathered Uttu. With Ningikuga he fathered Ningal, and is also the father of Burnunetasa.
  • Enki-Eneše, Ancestor of Enlil, husband of Ninki-Eneše, father of Enul - Ninul.
  • Enkigal, God of Umma.
  • Enkimdu, God of farming.
  • Ekiŋara, Secretary of Ninhursag.
  • Enkur, Ancestor of Enlil, son of Ennun, husband of Ninkur, father of Enamaš and Ninamaš.
  • Enindašuruma/Endašurun, Ancestor of Enlil, husband of Nindašuruma, Gate Keeper of the Netherworld. Son of En-utila, Father of Endukuga.
  • Enkibir, Underworld deity
  • Enkidakilib
  • Enkigidugna
  • Enkiimma.
  • Enkikagina
  • Enkikigišgisir
  • Enkikudama
  • Enkinun
  • Enkipasir
  • Enkisalsi
  • Enlil/Engašantilamu/Elum. Called "The eminent one, the sovereign lord, whose utterance is trustworthy". The God who Grants Kingship, one of the Superior deities of the pantheon. Son of Endukuga. Also called "The Great Mountain", "Nunamnir" (The Well respected)/. His wife is Ninlil and he is the father of Nanna, Ninurta, Ninudzale, Nergal, Lugalirra and Meslamtaea and with Ereškigal he is the father of Namtar. His third wife is Sud, Goddess of Šuruppag, his fourth wife is the birth Goddess Šuzianna and his fifth wife is Enzikalama.
  • Enlilkuga.
  • Enlillazi, "Captain" (Nu-Banda) of the Ekur.
  • Enlillugalzi.
  • Enlillupadamugi.
  • Enlilšaga.
  • Enlulim, Divine Shepherd of the goat-kids of Ninurta at Lagaš.
  • Enmelulu, wife of Adad.
  • Enmemu, son of Ninazu and Ningirida.
  • Enmešarra is a God of the Underworld, protector of flocks and sheep, son of Enindašuruma, brother of Endukuga, Uncle and Ancestor of Enlil, husband of Ninmešara, father of Abaralah, Adgirhaš, Gubagararae, Segbargim, Urbadagubgubu, Urbadumu and Zišumu.
  • Enmul, Lod Star, Ancestor of Enlil, son of Enul, husband of Ninmul, father of Enlu and Ninlu.
  • Ennadi, Utukku Spirit of Ninkarrak
  • Enmeharra
  • Enmenmenunsina, son of Lugalbanda.
  • Enmeuranna, deity in the entourage of Ištar.
  • Enmeurur
  • Enmud
  • Enna, Son of Anzu
  • Ennanum.
  • Ennugi/Sabarragimgimme Throne bearer of Enlil. Husband of Nanibgal, father of Gemedukuga.
  • Ennugigi, Gatekeeper of Ereškigal
  • Ennun, Ancestor of Enlil, son of En-šar, husband of Ninnun, father of Enkur and Ninkur.
  • Ennundagalla, Counsellor of Marduk.
  • Ennundul, Gate Keeper of Aššur.
  • Enrari, God of the Fowler
  • Ensigga
  • Enšar, One of the Primeval Deities, husband of Ninšar, father of Anšar and Kišar. Son of Duri and Dari.
  • En-šar, Ancestor of Enlil, son of Engaraš, husband of Nin-Šar, father of Ennun and Ninnun.
  • Enšarnugi
  • Enšuda
  • Ensudag
  • Enšududnuu
  • Ensignun, divine donkey heard of Ninurta at Lagaš.
  • Enšag, son of Ninhursag, born along with his six siblings to cure the illness of Enki.
  • Enšaluluʾa, administrator/vizier of Nanše.
  • Enten, God of Fertility, specifically of goats, cows, donkeys and other animals.
  • Enturra, deity in the entourage of Inanna and Dumuzi.
  • Enu
  • Enub
  • Enug, Ancestor of Enlil, son of Enhal, husband of Ninug, father of Engaraš and Ningaraš.
  • Enul, Ancestor of Enlil, son of Enki-Eneše, husband of Ninul, father of Enmul, Ninmul, and Nusku.
  • En-utila, Ancestor of Enlil, husband of Nin-utila, son of Enanna, father of Enindašuruma.
  • Enunbadna
  • Enundagduda
  • Enunkimen
  • Enunmestae.
  • Enuralla, Gate Keeper of the Underworld.
  • Enuranna, deity of Uruk
  • Enurta, god of sickness associated with Šulpae.
  • Enuru, Vizier of Answer of Šamaš
  • Enurula, Lord of the Ancient City, one of the Ancestors of Anu, husband of Ninurula, father of Alala.Alam and Belili.Alam.
  • Enurulum.
  • Enuruud.
  • Enušu.
  • Enzikalama, Wife of Enlil.
  • Enziniše, Mother Goddess, deity in the entourage of Gula/Ninkarrak.
  • Equ "inside the hip", Asakku-Demon God, son of Anu.
  • Ereškigal is a Goddess of Death and ruler of the Underworld. She is the sister of Inanna and daughter of Nanna and Ningal. She is the mother of Manungal, with Enlil the mother of Namtar and with Gugal'ana the mother of Ninazu.
  • Erib, son of Lugalbanda
  • Erimabinutuku, Ninurta' divine city official, venerated in Isin.
  • Eriqu
  • Erra, Underworld Deity, husband of Nin-Sar.
  • Esapar, Interpreter of Ištar.
  • Esi'
  • Eširnun
  • Espeš
  • Esu, god associated with Adad.
  • Ešahar
  • Ešbaranki, warrior of Šamaš.
  • Ešbaranna, Deified Command of Anu, advisor of Ninšubur.
  • Ešga, advisor of Enki
  • Eššeku
  • Ešmah, God Associated with Šamaš.
  • Ešušbur
  • Ešušdu
  • Ešuštur.
  • Etaedde, Wife of Agubba
  • Etalak, one of the Three Men of the Door Bolt.
  • Etamitum, Goddess.
  • Etamu
  • Etiru, God of the Temple of Bau at Aššur
  • E-turammi, viziera of Birdu.
  • Eul.
  • Ezensag
  • Ezenzimahna, ridu of Šamaš
  • Ezinu Grain Goddess.
  • Ezišukim
  • Ezu
  • Gabhušku-pana-zuab, counsellor of Ninurta.
  • Gabra, Goddess, wife of Apladad.
  • Gaga, Minor Goddess.
  • Galamhar, God of the Fowler
  • Galgamunasumu god in the entourage of Ištar.
  • Gal-šab, Master of the Weights of the Ebabbar.
  • GAL-UŠUM-kalama, one of the Standing Gods of the Eninnu.
  • Ganunhedu, advisor of Marduk.
  • Gara, wife of E-kur.
  • Gašru, God of Uruk and Mari.
  • Gatumdag, Mother Goddess of Lagash, mother of Turtur-Šugi.
  • Gayayu, shepherd of Nanna, his 7 daughters are Ŋeškiŋti, Abmunzerkiʾaŋ, Abunumunmundudu , Šunidu, Šušaba, Murguziʾaški and Samankuline.
  • Gazbaba, daughter and hairdresser of Nanaya.
  • Gemedukuga, daughter of Ennugi.
  • Gerra, Fire God, son of Anu and Antu, husband of Nin-Irigala.
  • Geshtinanna, daughter of Ninhursag. Goddess of Wine and cold seasons, wife of Ningišzida.
  • Geštu, God of intelligence, Vizier of Damkina/Damgalnunna.
  • Gibil God of Fire, son of Adad and Šala, husband of Ninešgal.
  • Gidri-sisa, Deified staff, Advisor of Ninšubur.
  • Gil, "Provider of Grain"
  • Ĝirĝire, son of Bilulu and Enbilulu, god of Storms, Protective God of the desert.
  • Gisaʾana, god associated with Nanna.
  • Ĝišbandagirizal, courtier of Ningišzida
  • GišBUga
  • Gišgašala, God of Fruit.
  • Gišgir, the Fetters, Messenger of Manungal
  • Gišgu, the Neckstock, Messenger of Manungal
  • Gišsam, God of Fruit.
  • Gišsilimma - Inquirer of Anu
  • Giššardabdab, Messenger of Manungal
  • Gišše, Messenger of Manungal
  • Gišu, the Manacles, Messenger of Manungal
  • Giʾizila, advisor of Gibil.
  • Gubagararae, son of Enmešarra, "Son of the New city", in the entourage of Ninkasi.
  • Gugarid, bull god.
  • Guhašlala , Goddess, "the one with the beautiful face"
  • Gula-ša-Bit-Gula, Goddess of the city of Bit-Gula in Uruk.
  • Gula-ša-Kisalli, Gula of the Courtyard, Goddess from Uruk.
  • Guniduga, Counsellor of Sadarnunna.
  • Gurmu, daughter of Bau and Ninurta.
  • Guškinbanda, God of Goldsmiths, called "Ea of the Goldsmiths".
  • Gušudu, God of the Lagašian Pantheon.
  • Hadaniš, Udug of the Ekur
  • Hahanu, minor God.
  • Hallulaya, Centipede Demon and Protective Spirit
  • Hamun, " the one in front who gives guidance".
  • Hamun-Ana, Vizier of Nidaba
  • Hani, attendant of Adad, "god of the quiet street".
  • Har, son of Nanna/Sin.
  • Hasinu/Geštugani, Vizier of Damkina/Damgalnunna
  • Hašhur, God of the Apple.
  • Haya God of scribes, storehouses husband of Nidaba, father of Ninlil and Amamasiagga. Also called Igkuga, "The Holy Door".
  • Hegirnunnu, daughter of Bau and Ninurta.
  • Hemdikug, daughter of Namtar and Hušbišag.
  • Hendursaga, God of Law, "Herald of the land of Sumer.”
  • Hetudu, daughter of Ninšubur, doorkeeper of Anu.
  • Hešagga, daughter of Bau and Ninurta.
  • HIʾamuʾana, Warrior of Nanna.
  • Hi-en-Hi-sa, God of the Fisherman
  • Hišamitum, Goddess of Mari
  • Huburše-igidu, Official of Edina.
  • Humhummu, God of vegetation.
  • Hušbišag, underworld Goddess, wife of Namtar, mother of Hemdikug, with a Griffin's head.
  • Hutaru, Divine Staff of the Eanna Temple at Uruk, connected with collection of sheep and goats for shearing and grazing.
  • Ibaum, Vizier of Ninazu.
  • Id, a river god.
  • Idgal, the deified river.
  • Idigina, the deified river Idigina (Tigris).
  • Idimhuš, god associated with Nanna
  • Idiptu, Divine Wind-Demon at the Gate of the Netherworld.
  • Idlurugu, the deified ordeal river.
  • Idsilim, the deified river.
  • Igalima, throne bearer of Ningirsu/Ninurta.
  • Igianabdu, Doorkeeper of Enki.
  • Igibarluti, Interpreter of Ištar.
  • Igibišenamtila, Doorkeeper of Enki.
  • Igibišesilima, Doorkeeper of Enki.
  • Igigungun, Doorkeeper of Ninkarrak.
  • Igihegal, Doorkeeper of Enki.
  • Igimaše, Deity in the Cult of Ninmarki of Gu-aba.
  • Igisigsig, "Green Face", Divine Gardener of Anu.
  • Iglulim, Stag Door, divine gate-keeper.
  • Ikšuda, the dog of Marduk.
  • Ikunum, deity from Sippar.
  • Il-aba, God associated with Šamaš
  • Ilabrat, Vizier of Anu.
  • Ili-miša, Vizier of Ninzu'anna.
  • Ilina, God in the entourage of Ningišzida.
  • Iltanati, deity of Aššur.
  • Iltebu, the dog of Marduk.
  • Impae, daughter of Bau and Ninurta.
  • Inanalal.
  • Inanna, Goddess of Sex and warfare. Daughter of Nanna and Ningal. Mother of Lulal. Associated with the planet Venus, which is called "Triple Inanna", and "Inanna Kur" (Venus of the Underworld) when not visible. Her Temple in Zabal is the E-giguna.
  • Indagara, bull God, "administrator who performs the opening of the mouth for the gods in the heavens and in the underworld, and who is versed in the meaning of obscure tablets; craftsman of the great gods!"
  • Inimanizi, vizier of Ninurta, brother of Ninkarnunna, "Great Chief En of the land", husband of DuniKAL and Lamma.
  • Inimduga, counsellor of Ninlil
  • Innin-galga-sud, Goddess. wife of Amurru.
  • Ippu, Vizier of Ningišzida.
  • Iqbi-damiq, vizier of Niggina.
  • Ilaba, war God, "mighty one of the Gods"
  • Illabundu, Standing God/Attendant of Nanna.
  • Ilumer, storm god of the desert.
  • Immertu, God.
  • Innašaga, Gatekeeper deity
  • Ipte-bitam, the vizier of Uraš (m).
  • Iragal, one of the Gods of the outer part of the "forecourt of the sceptre" of Nippur.
  • Irda, Warrior Goddess of Nipur,
  • Irhan, Udug of the Ekur.
  • Irhan-Gul, God, son of Nin-Sikilla and Lisin.
  • Irkalamma, son of Ninazu and Ningirida.
  • Irnina, War Goddess, personified victory, "The Proudest of the Anunna Gods"
  • Išar-mātiššu/He is Just to his Land.
  • Išar-Kīdiššu/He is Just to his Country Side.
  • Išar-nēriššu/He is Just to his Border.
  • Išar-āliššu/He is Just to his City
  • Išar-padan
  • Išartu.
  • Išhara, a Goddess of love, wife of Dagon, Almanu, mother of Aštamer
  • Išib-Hursag, Vizier of Nin-Muru.
  • Išimud, messenger of Enki, has two faces.
  • Išme-karab, attendant deity of the Ebabbar Temple at Sippar.
  • Išmela, deity of Aššur.
  • Išpatu, the Divine Quiver of Ištar at Uruk.
  • Išqippu, "Big Worm", Disease God
  • Ištanu, the North Wind, brother of Šadu, Šuttu and Amurru, under the command of Ea. "The North wind is the wind of satisfaction"
  • Ištar/Dunzaginna/Belit-Mati/Edammetu, A Goddess of fertility and warfare, daughter of Anu, associated with Nineveh, has her own flying Skychamber. "Sovereign of Battle and Combat, whose game is fighting" (bēlet qabli u tāḫāzi ša mēlultaša tuqumtu). Her main temple is the Emašmaš and she is also caled "Mullissu who dwells in the Emašmaš".
  • Ištar of Arbela, a warrior Goddess venerated seperately from the "unmodified" Ištar.
  • Ištar of the Šibirri Staff, a delimited Ištar venererated in Nineveh seperately from the unmodified Ištar.
  • Ištar the Panther, a delimited Ištar venererated in Nineveh seperately from the unmodified Ištar.
  • Ištaran. Male patrol of Der, god of Justice. Husband of Šarrat-Deri, father of Zizanu. His main Temple is the Edimgalkalama in Der.
  • Išum, God-Herald.
  • Itur-matiššu "Standing God" of Der's Ištaran.
  • Itur-mer, weather god, tutelary deity of Mari.
  • Kabaluša, Interpreter of Ištar.
  • Kabaninamtila, Doorkeeper of Enki.
  • Kabanisilimma, Doorkeeper of Enki
  • Kabta, God of the Evening Star, husband of Ninsi’anna.
  • KAduggalalbi, wife of Dunga.
  • Kahegal, Doorkeeper of Enki.
  • Kakka, Minister to Anu and Anšar.
  • Kakkabtu, the Divine Star Shaped Branding Iron of Ištar.
  • Kalamtašagkušu, warrior of Šamaš.
  • Kalkal, Servant of Enlil, husband of Nimintaba.
  • Kanabdu, Doorkeeper of Enki
  • Kanisurra, daughter of Nanaya.
  • Kapapkaka, Messenger of Ištar.
  • Kašbar, attendant deity of the Ebabbar Temple at Sippar.
  • Kaššitu, Goddess at Uruk and Babylon.
  • Katar-anna, oxe of Anu.
  • Katuginna, female hairdresser of Zarpanit.
  • Kidudu, Protective Deity of the Walls of Aššur.
  • Kidurkazal (of the abode of the mirth), daughter of Ninkasi.
  • Kigir, Gatekeeper of the Ebabbar.
  • Kigula, official of Anu, wife of Nita.
  • Kikiḫu, Tutelary God of Ašabu.
  • Kilili, "The Desirable Woman", "The Woman at the Window", Goddess of Harlots.
  • Kilibdaŋal, God associated with Šamaš.
  • Kindazi, female barber of Ninurta, wife of Ninkarnunna.
  • Kingaludda, Director of the storm, Evil God (ilu lemnu)
  • Kinnusum, wife of Adad.
  • Kiriurur, Small Shrine Official of Ninurta.
  • Kirizalkalama, warrior of Adad.
  • Kisag, wife of Idlurugu.
  • Kišar, wife of Anšar.
  • Kišargal, wife of Anšargal.
  • Kišitum, Goddess of Mari
  • Kittum, God of Truth, son of Šamaš, brother of Niggina.
  • Kituš-Keš, God, son of Nin-Sikilla and Lisin
  • Ku-Anna, God, son of Nin-Sikilla and Lisin.
  • Ku-anta-abzu, God, son of Nin-Sikilla and Lisin.
  • Ku-Kita, God, son of Nin-Sikilla and Lisin.
  • Ku-kita-abzu, God, son of Nin-Sikilla and Lisin.
  • Kulla God of Bricks.
  • Kulitanati , deity of Aššur.
  • Kumulmul, wife of Šara.
  • Kur is the first Dragon, a primodial god living in the Zagros mountains.
  • Kura, Patron God of Ebla, husband of Barama.
  • Kurašuurur, Ninurta's divine city official.
  • Kurgulgul, advisor of Lugalbanda.
  • Kurkura, God, child of Ninmarki.
  • Kurra-hušani-nukušu, counsellor of Ninurta.
  • Kurunam, minor deity, worshipped in the Gula temple.
  • Kurunitu, a Goddess of Sumerian Der.
  • Kus, God of heardsmen.
  • Kusu Grain Goddess. Her deeds are invoked with the formula "Kusu consecrated the oven, purified the oven. Kusu, did, in truth, let innmerable oxen and innumerable sheep into the big oven !"
  • Kušu, "above the shrine", Asakku-Demon God, son of Anu.
  • Kutatate, God.
  • Labaršilama, daughter of Ninazu, sister of Amašilama and Ningišzida.
  • Lagamal, son of Uraš (m).
  • Lahama, Primeval Deity, wife of Lahma.
  • Lahama-Abzu, Gate Keeper of Eridu.
  • Lahar God of cattle, created by the Annunaki together with his sister Ašnan.
  • Lahma, ("The Hairy One") Protective Deity. The son of E-kur and Gara. With Lahama he is the father of Duri and Dari.
  • Lalanna, God, son of Nin-Sikilla and Lisin.
  • Lamasukal, Messenger of Ištar.
  • Lamaštu Demon, daughter of Anu. Attacks pregnant women and children. Her six ceremonial are "Daughter of Anu", "Sister of the Gods of the Streets", "Sword which splitteth the skull", "She who kindleth a fire", "Goddess the sight of whose cause causeth terror", "Committed to the hands", under the command of Pazuzu. She often poses as a midwife to steal a child and then either strangles it or kills it with her own venomous milk. Her Evil Eye manifests in houses seperately from herself and she causes quarells among family member. She is winged, has the head of a lion with donkey teeth and a tail, and her body is scaled like a fish.
  • Lamma, wife of Inimanizi.
  • Lammaedin, god in the entourage of Ištar.
  • LammaKakka, Udug of the Ekur.
  • Lammašaga, Udug of the Ekur.
  • Lamma-šita'e, God of Lagash.
  • Lamma-uru, Lamma Goddess of Lagash.
  • Larsa-pada, God of the Fisherman
  • Lasimu, tutelary deity and "king" of the city of Zaralulu
  • Latarak Asakku-Demon, Lion headed God of Doorways, protector against sorcery, son of Anu.
  • Libu, God who causes the ague.
  • Lisi, Mother Goddess, Tutelary Deity of Gišgi.
  • Lisin, God, husband of Nin-Sikilla, father of Kituš-Keš, Lalanna, Urnunta'e, Ku-Anna, Ku-Kita, Ku-anta-abzu, Ku-kita-abzu and Irhan-Gul.
  • Lu-Enlilla, Udug of the Ekur.
  • Lu-Ninlilla, Udug of the E-kiur.
  • Lu-Ninurta, Udug of the Ešumedu.
  • Lu-Nuska, Udug of the E-melam-anna.
  • Luanna, oxe of Annu.
  • Lugalamašpae, God of epilepsy.
  • Lugalasal/Šar-sarbatim, Lord of the Poplar.
  • Lugalbahar, son of Nanna/Sin.
  • Lugalbanda, husband of Ninsun, Tutelary deity of Amarku, father of TURšilakur, Unam-edina, ŠEŠANtur, Numun-abšara, Udnamgi, Erib, Nunuz-abba, En-menme-en-nun-si-na, Te-nun-si-na, MES-GAR-ra.
  • Lugaldiŋira, god associated with Adad.
  • Lugalešbara, god associated with Adad.
  • Lugal-Edina, Asakku-demon, son of Anu.
  • Lugalemuš, Lagashian God of the E-Muš Temple-
  • Lugalganasusu, god associated with Adad.
  • Lugal-gizi, God.
  • Lugal-Gudua, "Hero single-hearted, irresistible warrior", god of the country outside of Larsa.
  • Lugalgudgaz, son of Nanna/Sin.
  • Lugalgururugu, god associated with Adad.
  • Lugalgusisu, "The Lord who directs the oxen", a god in Nippur.
  • Lugalharrana, divine secretary of Ninsun.
  • Lugalhenŋal, divine secretary of Lugalbanda.
  • Lugal-Hubur, netherworld God.
  • Lugal-hušani-kurra-nu'ila, one of the Standing Gods of the Eninnu.
  • Lugaligigungunnu, god in the entourage of Šulpa'e.
  • Lugal-iri-pirig, Divine Herald (nimgir) of Adab.
  • Lugalirra, Underworld God, son of Enlil, twin of Meslamtaea. Husband of Ku'annesi.
  • Lugalkirizal, god associated with Adad.
  • Lugal-kisa'a, God, "Lord of the Retaining Wall"
  • Lugalkisuna, courtier of Ningišzida.
  • Lugal-Gida, son of Tir-Anna.
  • Lugal-Kullaba, God associated with Dummuzi.
  • Lugalkurdub, opener of the Gate of Combat, guardian of the sacred weapons of Ningirsu, Chief Liuetenant of Ningirsu in battle.
  • Lugal-Kurra, "King of the Mountains".
  • Lugal-Kušla, "Lord of the Leather Sash", Gate keeper of the Netherworld.
  • Lugalkušsusu, god associated with Adad.
  • Lugal-Marada, solar God of Marad, husband of Ninzu'anna.
  • Lugal-Mašmaš, minor deity.
  • Lugalme, god of sickness associated with Šulpae.
  • Lugalmea, Vizier of Lugal-Marada.
  • Lugal-Melama, "The Splendrous Lord".
  • Lugal-mešudu, God, "The Lord who brings the me's to completion".
  • Lugal-me-urur, " The Lord who Controls all the me's".
  • Lugalmittu, minor God, venerated in Nippur.
  • Lugal-Murra, underworld God.
  • Lugal-Namenna, God of epilepsy.
  • Lugalnirana, Vizier of Šulpa'e.
  • Lugal-nirgal, God associated with Ninurta.
  • Lugal-nišaga, God, "The Lord of Pleasant Things".
  • Lugal-palamu, God, "The Lord Cladin a robe of gentility".
  • Lugalsaparku, courtier of Ningišzida.
  • Lugalšenšena, god associated with Adad.
  • Lugalšude, herald of Ningišzida.
  • Lugal-tibirra, God, "The Lord of the First".
  • Lugal-Tilla, God, "Lord of the City Square".
  • Lugal-Udda, god in the entourage of Šulpa'e.
  • Lugaludtešduga, god associated with Adad.
  • Lugal-unna, God, "Lord of the dead".
  • Lugal-Urra, god of epilepsy, in the entourage of Šulpa'e.
  • Lugal-Urtur, God of the Lagash pantheon.
  • Lugal-urubarra, "God of the Outer City".
  • Lugal-urupa'e, God, "Lord of the shinning City".
  • Lugalušimsusu, god associated with Adad.
  • Lugal-tilmun-abba, God, "The Lord, the noble of the sea".
  • Lugal-zukum, God.
  • Lugal-zulumma, God, "Lord of the Dates".
  • Lulal, Patron God of Bad-Tibira, son of Inanna.
  • Lumha, patron god of singers, husband of Ningubiduga.
  • Luma, Udug of the Ekur
  • Lusiŋara, Gatekeeper of Dingirmah.
  • Madanu, Throne Bearer of Marduk
  • Magarida, God in Babylon.
  • Magiru, oxe of Adad.
  • Magulana, god associated with Nanna.
  • Malak, Messenger of Ištar.
  • Mammiya, Sister of Marduk
  • Mandanu, God of Divine Judgement, patron of judges. His temple is the Erabriri ("The house of the shackles which holds in check") on the Esagila complex in Babylon, the name of his shrine in the Esagila court is Enigerimnudib ("The house which does not let evil pass")
  • Manungal: Underworld Goddess, Wife of Birdu. "Queen of the Ekur" who holds the "tablet of life", and passes out judgement unto the wicked. Also called Nungal
  • Mamu, Goddess of Dreams, daughter of Šamaš.
  • Mar-Biti, God of Der, Maliki and Borsippa. Also called Mar biti ša pan biti and Mar-biti ša birit nari.
  • Marali, Messenger of Ištar.
  • Marat-Anu.
  • Marat-Eana
  • Marat-Uruk
  • Marduk, (Šazu - "Knower of the Heart") son of Enki. Tutelary God Babylon, god of incantations. Husband of Zarpanit, father of Nabu. His four divine dogs are named Ukkumu, Sukuku, Ikšuda and Iltebu. His main temple is the Esagila in Babylon. His sacred weapon is a miṭṭum, a curved saber with cogs of a saw
  • Maru, Weather God.
  • Massar Kusse, Guardian of the Throne
  • Mašeg, son of Ninazu and Ningirida.
  • Mašŋi, minor deity.
  • Mašula, Son of Ninšubur.
  • Me-azag, daughter of Ninkasi.
  • Medimtum/Medimša, wife of Adad.
  • Mehuš, daughter of Ninkasi.
  • Megagame, vizier of Ningal.
  • Melû, deified staircase of the Aššur Temple.
  • Meme is a minor healing goddess.
  • Mendurahana, god associated with Nanna.
  • Menkutae, Son of Ninšubur.
  • Men-mete, daughter of Ninkasi.
  • Menšudu, God associated with Šamaš
  • Menunesi, daughter of Adad.
  • Menzalagbur, god associated with Nanna.
  • Mermer, god associated with Adad.
  • MES-GAR-ra, son of Lugalbanda.
  • Mes-sanga-Unug, God of Justice in Uruk, tutelary deity of Ennegir.
  • Meslamtaea, Underworld God, son of Enlil, twin of Lugalirra. Husband of Ninšubur. Also called Maštaba, "the pair", and is thought to have two identical bodies.
  • Mešunušudu
  • Mina-ikul-beli, divine cook of the Esagila
  • Mina-išti-beli, divine brewer of the Esagila.
  • MINbalaga, advisor of Enki
  • MINburgul, stonecutter deity in the entourage of Ninkurra
  • Minsar, God of Fruit.
  • Miqtu "Fall"/Stroke, Demon Deity.
  • Mišaru, Son and Vizier of Šamaš.
  • Miuššar, Female hairdresser of Zarpanit.
  • Muatiʾaba, calve of Adad.
  • Mudame-qat-ardati, child of Ninmah.
  • Mudame-qat-šumelli, child of Ninmah.
  • Muhegale, god associated with Nanna.
  • Mula, God associated with Šamaš.
  • Muhra, "in front of the main gate", Asakku-Demon God, son of Anu.
  • Mukil-me-balati, "Holder of the water of life", Deity of the Esagila.
  • Mul-iku-AŠGAN, oxe of Anu.
  • Mullissu, wife of Aššur.
  • Mummu, vizier of the divine fresh water Abzu.
  • Munusulšutag, Goddess, associated with Aya.
  • Murguziʾaški, daughter of Gayayu.
  • Murim, god associated with Adad.
  • Murumšanida, warrior of Adad.
  • Mušdamma God of buildings and foundations.
  • Mušendukuzu, son of Ninazu and Ningirida.
  • Mušmehuš, wife of Adad.
  • Muštabbabbu, Blazing, Demon God.
  • Muštešir-Habli (Righter of wrongs), a dragon god at Marduk's court.
  • Mušzagina, one of the Ublilla deities of the Court of Inanna
  • Mutum, Death, messenger of Ereškigal.
  • Muttabriqu, Demon-God, "Flashes of Lightning"
  • Nabitum, Goddess in the entourage of Nanaya.
  • Nablum, Vizier of Gibil.
  • Nabu. Son of Marduk, god of writing, patron God of Scribes. Husband of Nanaya and Tašmetu.
  • Nadin-me-qati, "Giver of the water of the hands" Deity of the Esagila.
  • Nagar-pa'e, God of Umma.
  • Nagaršaga, child of Ninmah.
  • Nagbu, spring-deity, associated with Enki.
  • NÁM.KIŠ
  • Namma, Goddess of Eridu, "mother who gave birth to the heavens and the earth.", "Mistress of the holy water basin".
  • Nammah, Protective deity in the entourage of Gula/Ninkarrak.
  • NÁM.ME.GÁRA
  • Namnir, God.
  • Namrat, wife of Numušda
  • Nanaya, daughter of Anu, Goddess of sensuality. Wife of Nabu. Also called Nin-Zilzil.
  • Nanibgal/Nisabaursaŋ, Female throne bearer of Enlil, wife of Ennugi.
  • Nanna/Sin/Asimbabbar/Ellame, God of the Moon, Tutelary God of Ur. Son of Enlil and Ninlil. His wife is Ningal and he is the father of Inanna, Utu, Numušda, Ningublaga, Ereškigal, Amarrazu, Lugalbahar, Lugalgudgaz, Har, Amarra-he'ea and Abelu. His 8 warriors are HIʾamuʾana, Urimkirizal, Amaršuba, Nannabulugmahŋu, Udmenana, Udkirizalana, Udezidana and Anhiliba.
  • Nannabalaŋanki, chief seal bearer of Nanna.
  • Nannabulugmahŋu, warrior of Nanna.
  • Namašmaš, daughter of Adad.
  • Namengaršudu, courtier of Ningišzida.
  • Namenna, god of sickness associated with Šulpae.
  • Namtar is the son of Ereškigal and Enlil, and is said to be a god of disease and pests, having the power to bestow 60 diseases, who serve as demons under his command. He is the husband of Hušbišag, and father of Hemdikug, and the Vizier of Ereškigal. "Namtar does the honours, with a dagger in his right hand, and the hair of the man to be killed in his left."
  • Namzu, God, "Who knows the destiny".
  • Nanšak, Son of Tišpak.
  • Nanše/Nina, Goddess of Prophecy, Fishing, also in charge of assuring correct use of weights and measurements. Daughter of Ninhursag, one of the seven healing Gods born to heal Enki. Her other role is as dream interpreter. She is the wife of Nindara. Her main sanctuary is the Esirara, is located in Ningin in Lagash. She is typically depicted sitting on a Goose-Throne.
  • Narkabtu, the Divine Chariot.
  • Narua, one of the Standing Gods of the Eninnu.
  • Narudu, Goddess, sister of the Iminbi/Sibittu (Seven Gods).
  • Neduhankišar, Gatekeeper of Ereškigal.
  • Negun, minor Goddess, sister of Ašgi.
  • Ner-e-tagmil, Vizier of the ordeal god.
  • Nergal/Enikurra/Engidudu. "The Raging King", "The Furious Ones". Son of Enlil. God of Plague, pestilence and war. He is the husband of Laṣ, Mammi and Admu. Seeing his dedicated planet Mars is considered a bad omen. He is the father of Šubula and Dad-muštum.
  • Nerubanda, Gate Keeper of the Underworld.
  • Neti, Chief Gate keeper of the Underworld.
  • Nezila, A god in the entourage of Manungal.
  • Nidaba/Nisaba Goddess of writing and grain, daughter of Anu, wife of Haya. Mother of Ninlil. One of her epithets include: "To Nisaba, Good lady, greatly wise, pre-eminent in the lands" (Nissaba munus-zid gal-an-zu kur-kur-ra dirig-ga), "the Lady of knowledge who gladdens the heart", "The Strong one among the black headed" and "Lady of the Me" and "Good woman, fair woman, woman born in the mountains".
  • Nidakul, Moon God of Ebla.
  • Nigal-edinna, Gatekeeper deity
  • Nigir-sig "The Precious Lord", captain of Enki's boat.
  • Nigkumaha, child of Ninmah.
  • Nigsisa, "Justice", "secretary of the left side", Vizier of Šamaš
  • Nigzida, "Truth", "secretary of the right side", Vizier of Šamaš
  • Nimgir, vizier of Adad.
  • Nimgirgire, god associated with Adad.
  • Nimgir-Kurra, God, Herold of Ninmah.
  • Nimintaba, Door Keeper of Enlil, wife of Kalkal.
  • Nin-Ad-mu, netherworld Goddess from Mari.
  • Nin-agala, smith God, husband of Nin-Imin.
  • Nin-Alšul, tutelary Goddess of Alšul.
  • Ninamaš, wife of Enamaš.
  • Ninamaškuga, shepherd of Enlil, husband of Ninkiriamaša.
  • Ninanna, one of the father-mother deities, wife of Enanna.
  • Ninanzud, warrior of Ninmarki.
  • Nin-Aratta, Goddess of Aratta.
  • Nin-aruru, Advisor of Ninmah.
  • Ninazu, son of Ereškigal and Gugal'ana. Tutelary God of Enegi and Eshnunna, He is the god of war, snakes and agriculture, as well as deity of the underworld. One of his other titles is "king of the snakes". He is the husband of Ningirida and father of Ningišzida, an underworld deity, Šulagubu, Šulazida, Enmemu, Irkalamma, Mašeg, Mušendukuzu, Šuhaturabzu and their sisters Amašilama and Labaršilama. The dragon Mušhuššu is his servant.
  • Ninbau, Chair Carrier of Baba/Bau.
  • Ninbizeŋ, God, child of Ninmarki.
  • Ninbubu, god of sailors.
  • Ninbulug, wife of Enbulug.
  • Ninbursal, child of Ninmah.
  • Ninda, wife of Enda.
  • Nindara, "Lord of destinies", heavenly warrior, husband of Nanše.
  • Nindašuruma, Mother and Ancestor of Enlil, wife of Enindašuruma.
  • Nindaudidu, cook of Anu.
  • Nindimgul, A god of law, minister to Manungal.
  • Nindir, Small Shrine Official of Ninlil.
  • Nindu, wife of Endu.
  • Nindub, God in the city of Lagash.
  • Nindubarra, god of ship builders.
  • Nindukuga, ancestor of Enlil, wife of Endukuga.
  • Nindurba, Gate Keeper of Enki.
  • NinEngurra, Udug Deity.
  • NinennunPA, herald of the watch.
  • Ninešgal, wife of Gibil.
  • Nin-Ezen, advisor of Enki
  • Nin-Ezen-Dub, advisor of Enki
  • Ningal, Goddess of reeds, Daughter of Enki and Ningikuga, wife of Nanna, mother of Inanna, Utu, Numušda and Ereškigal.
  • Nin-Gamuš, tutelary deity of Gamuš.
  • Ningandu, daughter of Ninšubur.
  • Ningaraš, wife of Engaraš.
  • Ningidri, Goddess of Lagaš, "Lady of the sceptre"
  • Ningikuga, Goddess of reeds and marshes, daughter of Anu, wife of Enki.
  • NinGIL, Steward of Baba/Bau
  • NingiLal, God of the Fisherman
  • Ningirida, wife of Ninazu, daughter of Enki and Ninhursag.
  • Ningirama, God of magic, protector against snakes.
  • Nin-Girim, Reed and Grass Goddess, "Queen of Uruk".
  • Nin-Girizal, Underworld Lord, "Lord of Splendour".
  • Nin-Girzida, Goddess of Nippur, in the entourage of Gula/Ninkarrak.
  • Nin-gišgi, Goddess of reeds.
  • Nin-gišhur'anna/Tir-Anna, Goddess of Rainbows, name of the Sumerian version of the Elamite Manzat, mother of Lugal-gida.
  • Nin-Gišimmar, Goddess of date palms.
  • Nin-giškešda, Goddess of the weir.
  • Ningišzida, a deity of the underworld. Husband of Azimua and Geshtinanna, daughter of Ninhursag, "God of Most Rightful Progeny".
  • Ningublaga , Cattle God, son of Nanna. Also called "Rampant wild bull" (Sumin-Zig), "The lord, a furious angry storm against the enemy, "My lord who brings life to the people", "The lord whose manliness is impressively strong" and "Hero, formidable flood that no man comes forward to oppose!" . The deeds of the god are described in adab form thusly: "Hero, with a battle-cry you have angrily piled up skulls in the rebel lands. You have terrified their brick buildings and scattered their chaff heavenward. Rampant wild bull, with a battle-cry you have angrily piled up skulls in the rebel lands. You have terrified their brick buildings and scattered their chaff heavenward. Divine offspring of a prince, by your casting down their city dwellings, their protective gods have been alienated because of you. You have made them abandon their beautiful shrines and follow another path. Rampant wild bull, by your casting down their city dwellings, their protective gods have been alienated because of you. You have made them abandon their beautiful shrines and follow another path. You flatten those mountains and turn them over to ghostly winds. You make their young warriors submit, no longer able to enter into battle. Rampant wild bull, you flatten those mountains and turn them over to ghostly winds. You make their young warriors submit, no longer able to enter into battle." Husband of Niniagar.
  • Ningubiduga, wife of Lumha,
  • Ninguharana, Primary Bailif of Manungal.
  • Ninhaba, Goddess
  • Ninhal, wife of Enhal.
  • Ninharana, Goddess, barber of Ningal.
  • Nin-hedubi, daughter of Ninšubur
  • Nin-hinuna, Goddess, messenger of Inanna.
  • Nin-Hi, Fish Goddess.
  • Nin-Hilisu, Goddess from Umma.
  • Ninhursag. Fertility goddess, wife of Enki. Called "Damgulanna" (great wife of heaven), mother of Ninmu. Gives birth to seven healing gods to heal Enki, among them Azimua. Also mother of Geshtinanna.
  • Niŋgumaha, Divine Cook of Keš.
  • Nintugmetukusud, minor deity.
  • Niniagar. Goddess of Ki-abrig, wife of Ningublaga.
  • Ninnig, Steward of Baba/Bau.
  • Nin-Ildu, God of carpenters, protector of Dulum.
  • Nin-Imin, "Lady of the Seven", wife of Nin-agala.
  • Ninimma, fertility Goddess, deified female sexual organs, wife of Guškinbanda. Daughter of Enlil, sister of Ninurta.
  • Niniribara, Small Shrine Official of Ninlil.
  • Nin-Irigala, Goddess of the Sacred Precint of Irigal in Uruk, wife of Gerra.
  • Nin-kargal-naru, Tutelary Deity of Naru.
  • Ninkarnunna, God of barbers, attendant of Ninurta, brother of Inimanizi, husband of Kindazi.
  • Ninkarrak, also called Gula. Called "Ninisinna", "Lady of Isin", and "azugallatu" (The Great Healer). She is a healing Goddess, the daughter of Anu and wife of Pabilsag, God of Larak. Their childen are Damu, a Healing God, and the Goddess Gunurra.
  • Ninkasi, Goddess of beer, daughter of Ninhursag, born along with her six siblings to heal Enki. Also called "Ninguenaka". Mother of Mehuš, Men-mete, Kidurkazal and Nusiligga.
  • Ninkaskisikil, Divine Herald of the city of Kuara.
  • Nin-kasidin, Tutelary Goddess of Kasidin.
  • Ninkašbara, Heavenly Herald.
  • Ninki-Eneše, wife of Enki-Eneše.
  • Ninkimara, God of E-Nin-Kimara, child of Ninmarki
  • Ninkilim, Goddes of vermin, patron God of Diniktum, wife of Nin-Muru.
  • Ninkiriamaša, daugher of Ama-arazu, wife of Ninamaškuga.
  • Ninkiriura, Small Shrine Official of Ninlil.
  • Ninkišarra, cook of Anu.
  • Ninkita, daughter of Ninšubur.
  • Ninkingal, wife of Enkingal.
  • Ninkugal, wife of Enkugal.
  • Ninkugnuna, Attendant/Standing God of Nanna.
  • Nin-kura-igigal, Goddess, "Lady who observes the Foreign Land".
  • Ninkur, wife of Enkur.
  • NinKURDABUAN, wife of Pisanunug, the divine herald of Kulaba.
  • Ninkurra, Patron Goddess of stone cutters.
  • Ninlil Goddess commanding the North Wind, Daughter of Nidaba and Haya. Wife of Enlil. Mother of Ninurta, Ašgi and Negun. Her Temple is Kiš is called the Ehursagkalama.
  • Ninlu, wife of Enlu.
  • Ninmada, birth Goddess.
  • Ninmada, snake charmer of Enlil.
  • Ninmadibdib, Shepherd of Enlil.
  • Ninmah/Mami/Belet-ili,/Dingirmah The Gread Mother Goddess, who'se main temple is located at Keš. Mother of Buruššasudsu.
  • Ninmara, Messenger Goddess, daughter of Ninmarki.
  • Ninmarki, A Goddess of oaths, daughter of Enki. Her cult center is Gu-Aba in Lagash. Wife of Nin-Mušbar, mother of Ninmara, Ninkimara, Kurkura, Zišaggisaʾa, Nunus-Aštumu, Aginsigeš, Aginzamanuš, EnBUdudu, Amaršuba, Emeda and Ninbizeŋ.
  • Ninmešara, one of the Father-Mother deities, wife of Enmešara.
  • Ninmetenten, Female Servant of Nanna.
  • Ninmul, Lady Star, ancestor of Enlil, wife of Enmul.
  • Ninmulguna, Goddess associated with Aya
  • Nin-Murarat, God from Mari.
  • Nin-Muru, Lord of Muru, Husband of Ninkilim.
  • Nin-Mušbar, husband of Ninmarki.
  • Nin-Muškur, God of kur-MUŠ, a source of Lapis Lazuli.
  • Nin-Mušmušru, Fish Eating God.
  • Nin-nagar, Tutelary Goddess of Nagar.
  • Nin-namri, stonecutter deity in the entourage of Ninkurra
  • Nin-na, Counsellor of Baba/Bau
  • Ninnisi, Birth Goddess.
  • Ninnisig, god of the Ešaba Temple.
  • Ninnun, wife of Ennun.
  • Ninnu-Tabba, Standing God/Attendant of Nanna.
  • Ninpamulesi, wife of Sagkud
  • Nin-pap-Nigin-garra, wife of Pap-nigin-gara.
  • Nin-pirig, Chief Vizier of Šamaš.
  • Ninrari, God of the Fowler
  • Nin-Sar, Godddess, Butcher and Steward of the great temple of Enlil at Nippur, wife of Erra.
  • Nin-Sakar, tutelary deity of Sakar.
  • Ninsi’anna, Goddess of the Morning Star, wife of Kabta, also called "Ištar of the Stars".
  • Ninsignun, Udug deity.
  • Nin-Sikilla, Goddess, wife of Lisin, mother of Kituš-Keš, Lalanna, Urnunta'e, Ku-Anna, Ku-Kita, Ku-anta-abzu, Ku-kita-abzu and Irhan-Gul
  • Ninsimug, God of Metal Works
  • Ninšar, wife of Enšar.
  • Nin-Šar, wife of En-šar.
  • Ninšarnunna, Messenger of Ištar.
  • Ninšenšena, Goddess
  • Nin-šuba, Lady of the šuba-stones.
  • Ninšubur, Second in command of Inanna, wife of Meslamtaea. Mother of Ningandu, Pap-pap, SAL-šaga, Hetudu, Nin-hedubi, Ninkita and AheLUL, Mašula, Menkutae, ULInuša, UDU-mahdib.
  • Nintihal, protective spirit of the temple, father of Dulum
  • Nintinugga is a healing Goddess, wife of Endagga.
  • Nintulla, son of Ninhursag, born to relieve the illness of Enki.
  • Ninudzale, daughter of Enlil, wife of Saman.
  • Ninug, wife of Enug.
  • Nin-UG-AB, one of the Ublilla deities of the Court of Inanna
  • Nin-UG-UG, one of the Ublilla deities of the Court of Inanna
  • Ninul, wife of Enul.
  • Ninuraš, Primeval Goddess, wife of Uraš (m), mother of Anu.
  • Nin-utila, wife of En-utila.
  • Ninurbu.
  • Ninurim, Wife of Alammuš.
  • Ninurta/Ningirsu. Son of Enlil, husband of Baba/Bau. Tutelary God of Girsu, farming God. Slayer of demons. With Baba he is the father of Šulšagana and Igalima. His main sanctuary in Lagash, the Eninnu, is described in a divine prophecy of Ningirsu as:

"The heavens tremble before my House, the Eninnu, founded in heaven, whose ‘Me’ s are the greatest, surpassing all other ‘Me’ , before the House whose owner looks out over a great distance, tremble as before the roaring of the Thunderbird."

His entourage include Udanna, "the all seeing God", Lugalanbadra the "bearded god" and Lugalkurdub. His weapons include the talking mace Šarur, the mace Šargaz, the Udbanu'ila and the Fifty headed Mace.

  • Ninurula, one of the Ancestors of Anu, wife of Enurula.
  • Ninzadim, a god of sculpture.
  • Niŋgaba, Standing God/Attendant of Nanna.
  • Niŋgina, Goddess of Truth, daughter of Šamaš, sister of Kittum.
  • Niŋirkura, Divine herald of the Netherworld.
  • Niŋna, advisor of Gibil.
  • Niŋerimhulgig, attendant deity of the Ebabbar Temple at Sippar.
  • Ninzu'anna, Goddess of Marad, wife of Lugal-Marada.
  • Nipa'e, God of Lagaš.
  • Nirah Underworld deity, "Radiant god, Son of the house of Der", minister to Ištaran.
  • Niridu, Deity worshipped in the temple of Ištar of Nineveh.
  • Nišba, God, deified mountain worshipped in Simurrum.
  • Nita, husband of Kigula.
  • Numunabšaga, seer God.
  • Numunabšara, son of Lugalbanda.
  • Numušda, Patrod God of Kazallu, god of war and fertility. Son of Nanna, husband of Namrat, father of Adgar-kidu.
  • Nunbarsegunu, Goddes of barley.
  • Nundumkuga, daughter of Kusug.
  • NunnaDI, Udug of Baba/Bau
  • Nunsaŋmah, God Associated with Šamaš.
  • Nunu, Official of Edin.
  • Nunura, chief potter of Anu.
  • Nunus-Aštumu, god, child of Ninmarki.
  • Nunuz-abba, son of Lugalbanda
  • Nur-ili, light god associated with Šamaš.
  • Nurra, god of potters.
  • Nur-Šamaš, attendant deity of the Ebabbar Temple at Sippar.
  • Nusiligga (the "braggard"), daughter of Ninkasi.
  • Nusku/Nuska, Son of Enul and Ninul, god of fire and light and Enlil's Vizier, husband of Sadarnunna, father of DuniKAL.
  • Ŋeškiŋti, daughter of Gayayu.
  • Pa, God of the Fowler
  • Pabilsag, God of Larak. Son of Anu, Husband of Ninkarrak, father of Damu and Gunurra. Called "warrior of Enlil", god of Hunting, healing and the underworld.
  • Padindug, God of the nesaŋ offering.
  • Palil god in the entourage of Ištar.
  • Panigarra, a god of Adab, associated with the Mother Goddess.
  • Pap-nigin-gara, god of war, husband of Nin-pap-Nigin-garra.
  • Papnumundu, minor deity, his epither is "Papnunuzkadgur"
  • Pap-pap, daughter of Ninšubur.
  • Papsukkal/Gadalalabzu Sukkal of Zababa. Husband of Amasagnul.
  • Papnuna , Vizier of Advice of Šamaš
  • Papunug, minor deity.
  • Pašertu, "The Loosener", a Goddess of Childbirth in the entourage of Gula/Ninkarrak.
  • Pazuzu Son of Hanbi, King of the Evil spirits of the air, lord of the Lil Spirits (Ardat Lili, Etel Lili, Naššuqitu,) and of Lamaštu . "I go forth from the mountains, raging like a whirlwind."
  • Pedu, Gate Keeper of the Underworld.
  • Pešgal, God associated with Šamaš.
  • Piriŋguduga, warrior of Adad.
  • Piriŋmeme, god associated with Adad.
  • Piriŋsu, god associated with Adad.
  • Pisanunug, Ninurta's divine city official, divine Mayor of Larsa.
  • Pu u lišanu, "Mouth and Tongue", Deified Cultic objects for transmission of prayer
  • Qibidunqi, deity of Aššur.
  • Qudma, bull god.
  • Raqadu.
  • Rašub-Bitim, God from Malgium, escort lion of Ulmaššitum.
  • Rihamun, He Who Holds the Briddle of Šamaš.
  • Rugaban, bull god.
  • Sadarnunna, new moon Goddess, wife of Nusku, daughter of Anu and Antu.
  • Saghulhaza, Upholder of Evil, Gatek Keeper of the Underworld.
  • Sag-il.
  • Sagšunuba, Counsellor of Baba/Bau
  • Sakgal, Demon Deity.
  • Sagkud, Cup-holder of Anu, husband of Ninpamulesi
  • Sahirtu, Goddess, sender of messeges between lovers.
  • Sakkut, "in the middle of the swamp"
  • Sal-Me, Udug of Baba/Bau
  • SAL-šaga, daughter of Ninšubur.
  • Saman, son of Anu, husband of Ninudzale.
  • Samankuline, daughter of Gayayu.
  • Saŋbaršudu, God associated with Šamaš.
  • Saŋkara, God associated with Šamaš.
  • Saŋšutašubšuba, Deity.
  • Saparnuna, Divine Herald of the city of Keš.
  • Sapin-ayyabi, Ninurta's city official.
  • Sarbanda, Goddess of the hunt and war in Uruk.
  • Sardug, runner of Šamaš.
  • Sasardug, runner of Šamaš.
  • Segbargim, son of Enmešarra.
  • Sidanu, Vertigo, Demon God.
  • Sikilamesi, wife of Sigsig.
  • Silili, Goddess, the Mother of the horse.
  • Sudag, Goddess associated with Aya
  • Sudgan, Goddess associated with Aya
  • SUkiŋara, Gatekeeper of Dingirmah.
  • Sukuku, dog of Marduk.
  • Surrugal, "Great lamentation singer" warrior of Adad.
  • Siduri, Goddess of Fermentation.
  • Sigsig, Dream god, son of Šamaš, husband of Sikilamesi.
  • Siʾe, God Associated with Šamaš.
  • Silakku, "in the orchard", Asakku-Demon God, son of Anu.
  • Sikilamezu, wife of Šumugan.
  • Silluš-tab, female hairdresser of Zarpanit.
  • Sin of Heaven/Sin ša Šame god of Uruk.
  • Sirtir, Goddess of sheep.
  • Sisa, attendant deity of the Ebabbar Temple at Sippar.
  • Sisakalama, attendant deity of the Ebabbar Temple at Sippar.
  • Sisanuhalama, attendant deity of the Ebabbar Temple at Sippar.
  • Sud-e, Master of the Weights of the Ebabbar.
  • Sunabšaga, cow of the (mother's) womb.
  • Šadu, The East Wind, brother of Ištanu, Šuttu and Amurru, under the command of Enlil. "The East wind is the wind that brings rain".
  • Šala Goddess of grain, wife of Adad.
  • Šabgal, Trader of Ebabbar.
  • Šabsir, Trader of Ebabbar.
  • Šagadula, Messenger of Šamaš.
  • ŠagBAD, cook of Ningirida.
  • Šagepada, Goddess.
  • Šagkušukalama, Warrior of Šamaš.
  • Šagturnuntaʾe, counsellor of Ašgi.
  • Šagzumah, child of Ninmah.
  • Šaŋanlalukarkara, minor deity.
  • Šara, God of war, son of Anu, husband of Kumulmul.
  • Šarrabu, Demon God, "The Lord of All Warfare"
  • Šarrahitu, Goddess.
  • Šarrat-Deri, wife of Ištaran.
  • Šarrat-Kullaba, Queen of Kullaba, tutelary Goddess of the city of Kullab.
  • Šarrat-Nakkanti, Queen of the Treasury.
  • Šarrat-parakki. Goddess
  • Šarrat-šame. Goddess
  • Šeba, Gate Keeper of Eridu.
  • Šedukal, Messenger of Ištar.
  • Šegbaraimime, god of cultivating the field.
  • Šegmungigi, warrior of Adad.
  • Šeriš, oxe of Adad.
  • Šerua, Goddess, wife of Aššur.
  • Šeruru, "the secretary of equal rank"
  • ŠEŠANtur, son of Lugalbanda.
  • Šidada
  • Šilabat, interpreter of Ištar.
  • Šilamkura.
  • Šinamarate, deity of Aššur.
  • Šišarrat, goddess, wife of Uqur.
  • Šitahanu, deity of Aššur.
  • Šitatarru, daughter of Mutum (Death).
  • Šitemme-pišunu, attendant deity of the Ebabbar Temple at Sippar.
  • Šubanuna, daughter of Adad.
  • Šubirbi, God of Aššur.
  • Šubula, son of Nergal.
  • Šuburazida, Chief Herdsman of Anu
  • Šubur-hamun
  • Šudbindugbaša, Protective deity in the entourage of Gula/Ninkarrak.
  • Šugan-šegbar, Vizier of Ninurta in Lagaš.
  • Šugi, the driver of Enmešarra's chariot.
  • Šuhalbi, Protective deity in the entourage of Gula/Ninkarrak.
  • Šuhaturabzu, son of Ninazu and Ningirida.
  • Šukudu, War God, "The Arrow", personified Šukudu (Sirius) Star.
  • Šukum, bull God.
  • Šulagubu, son of Ninazu and Ningirida.
  • Šulak, "in the ruins".
  • Šulazida, son of Ninazu and Ningirida.
  • Šullat, attendant of Utu/Šamaš.
  • Šulmanu, God of fertility and war.
  • Šulpa'e, God of warfare, feasts and wild animals, called Maškim-ĝi-lú-har-ra-na (The traveler’s night constable)
  • Šulpaeamaš, attendant of Emah Temple.
  • ŠulpaeDARa, attendant of Emah Temple.
  • Šulpaetaria, god of sickness associated with Šulpa'e.
  • Šulpaeutulam, minor deity.
  • Šulšagana, god of the cult of the children of the ruler of Lagash, brother of Igalim, eagle scimitar of Zababa.
  • Šulutul, God in the entourage of Šulpa'e.
  • Šulzidmahana, horse-groom of Šamaš.
  • Šumah, Protective deity in the entourage of Gula/Ninkarrak.
  • Šumugan, God of the River plains, King of the Steppe, son of Anu, whose epiteths are "Anšeʾamanigandu", "Kiʾugu"," Uhiʾa". Husband of Ellamesi, Sikilamezu.
  • Šunidu, daughter of Gayayu.
  • Šunidugud, Advisor of Lugal-Marada.
  • Šupa, god associated with Adad.
  • Šusaduga, Messenger of Manungal
  • Šušaba, daughter of Gayayu.
  • Šušgim, bull god.
  • Šuttu, The female South Wind, sister of Šadu, Amurru and Ištanu, under the command of Ninlil. "The South Wind overthrows the men it hits".
  • Šuzabarkug, wife of Adad.
  • Šuziana, birth Goddess, wife of Enlil.
  • Taduruna, Gatekeeper of the Esagila.
  • Taramua, Deity of Kurba'il.
  • Tašmetu. Wife of Nabu, daughter of Uraš.
  • Tašme-Zikru, Female vizier of Belet-Beri.
  • Te-nun-si-na, son of Lugalbanda.
  • Terdu, "Persecution", Demon God
  • Tiruru, Winged Goddess.
  • Tišpak, Tutelary god of Eshnunna, also called "Abarak Timatin" (Steward of Sea). One of the most important cultic objects of his Temple in Eshnunna is a bronze plough.
  • Tuda, tutelary deity of Kian.
  • Tuduga, attendant of Emah Temple.
  • Tug-enna, son of Lugal-Marada
  • Tugki, Steward of Baba/Bau
  • Tug-nunna, son of Lugal-Marada.
  • Tukur, God associated with Šamaš.
  • Turma "Standing God" of Der's Ištaran.
  • TURšilakur, son of Lugalbanda.
  • Turtur-Šugi, (Jung-Old), God.
  • Tutu, Tutelary God of Borsippa.
  • Ua-Ildak, Goddess of pastures and poplar trees.
  • Ubanuila, deified mace of Ninurta.
  • Ubdadudu, Messenger of Ištar.
  • Ubkalamma, one of the Ublilla deities of the Court of Inanna
  • Ublia, one of the Ublilla deities of the Court of Inanna
  • Ublilla, one of the Ublilla deities of the Court of Inanna
  • Ubsaharra, one of the Ublilla deities of the Court of Inanna
  • Ude, god associated with Adad.
  • Udeguba, God associated with Šamaš.
  • Udera, god associated with Adad.
  • Uderara, god associated with Adad.
  • Udezidana, Warrior of Nanna.
  • Udgude, god associated with Adad.
  • Udgunundi, Advisor of Ninurta
  • Udkirizalana, Warrior of Nanna.
  • Udmenana, Warrior of Nanna.
  • Udnamgi, son of Lugalbanda.
  • Udsakar, new moon God, associated with Nanna.
  • Udsura, warior of Adad.
  • UdugKakka, Udug of the Ekur.
  • Udugšaga, Udug of the Ekur.
  • UDU-mahdib, son of Ninšubur.
  • Uʾe, God associated with Šamaš.
  • UGnima, one of the Three Men of the Door Bolt.
  • Ukkumu, dog of Marduk.
  • Ulmaš, Standing God of the Ekur.
  • Ulmaššitum, Goddess of Malgium.
  • ULInuša, Son of Ninšubur.
  • Uliu, oxe of Anu.
  • Umenšugal, Counsellor of Baba/Bau
  • Umanisadi, Advisor of Ninurta
  • Ummu, Fever, Demon God.
  • Ummuša-ina-qerbete-šupat, child of Ninmah.
  • Umunhuš, šūlu demon.
  • Umunmutamku, Marduk's cook, presents the offerings given by humans to the Gods.
  • Umunmutamnag , Marduk's cup-bearer, presents the offerings given by humans to the Gods.
  • Umušana, Ninurta' Divine City Official.
  • Umuškita, Ninurta' Divine City Official.
  • Umuštaabzu, minor deity.
  • Unam-edina, son of Lugalbanda.
  • Ungasaga, Vizier of Nisaba.
  • Unudib, Sleepless one, Messenger of Manungal
  • Unken, god associated with Nanna.
  • Unkenuru, god associated with Nanna.
  • Ununtababa, Udug Deity.
  • Uplum, Vizier of Manungal.
  • Uqur, Dagger and Vizier of Nergal, husband of Šišarrat.
  • Ur-A-EDIN, advisor of Damkina/Damgalnunna
  • Urala, juniper deity.
  • Uraš (m), God, Father of Anu, Husband of Ninuraš, Primeval God, son of Anšargal and Kišargal, father of Lagamal.
  • Uraš, Wife of Anu, mother of Ninsun.
  • Urbad/Kusug, Lord of Being Exalted, Divine High Priest of the Gods of Babylon, Sangamah of Enlil, father of Nundumkuga
  • Urbadagubgubu, son of Enmešarra
  • Urbadhumhum, God of the Ešaba Temple
  • Urbadumu, son of Enmešarra
  • Urenuntaea, daughter of Bau and Ninurta.
  • Urimkirizal, Warrior of Nanna.
  • Uringal, God Associated with Šamaš.
  • Urmašum, Vizier of Ninkarrak.
  • Ursa, God of the Fisherman
  • Uršabiduga, Vizier of Ninkarrak/Gula.
  • Urugal, secretary of Alammuš.
  • Urnunta'e, God, son of Nin-Sikilla and Lisin.
  • Urra, child of Ninmah.
  • URguru, child of Ninmah.
  • Urigallu Standard of Ištar.
  • Urigallu Standard of Usur-amassu.
  • Urkayitu, Goddess from Uruk.
  • Ur-Suena, "Herald of the decision"
  • Urutab, god associated with Adad.
  • Ur-zababa, Advisor of Ninurta
  • Usrupišunu, deity of Aššur.
  • Uṣur-amatsu, Goddess of Uruk.
  • Usurra “Lamenting storm”, Warrior of Adad.
  • Ušeg, courtier of Ningišzida.
  • Ušum-barra-gešbu, counsellor of Ninurta.
  • Ušumgal, Vizier of Ninkilim.
  • Ušumšagsu, child of Ninmah.
  • Ušum-ursag-kurra-dib-dibi, counsellor of Ninurta.
  • Ušum-ursag, counsellor of Tišpak.
  • Utu/Šamaš God of the Sun, son of Nanna and Ningal. Husband of Aya, father of Niŋgina, Kittum, Mišaru, Mamu and Sigsig. The gods associated with him and sometimes regarded as aspects of him are Saŋkara, Menšudu, Tukur, Siʾe, Nunsaŋmah, Mula, Uringal, Pešgal, Kilibdaŋal, Ekid, Uʾe, Ešmah , Saŋbaršudu, Udeguba and Enidimanki. His epithet is "mušpardu eṭuti, mušnammir ukli" “the one who irradiates the darkness".
  • Uttu, Goddess of clothes and weaving.
  • Wer, A storm god.
  • Yakrub-il, Amorite patriarch deity in Mari.
  • Zababa War God, son of Aššur, consort of Ištar, tutelary deity of Kish. His main Temple at Kish is the Emeteursaĝ.
  • Zagar, God of Dreams.
  • Zannaru, "the Wise Goddess, of the four world regions, honoured by Dagān"
  • The Zapiqtu Standards of Uruk.
  • Zaranugi'a, Messenger of Ištar.
  • Zariqu, God of Irrigation.
  • Zarmu, daughter of Bau and Ninurta.
  • Zarpanit,/Belit, mother Goddess wife of Marduk.
  • Zarzaru, so of Ninmah.
  • Zazaru, daughter of Bau and Ninurta.
  • Zikarsi, divine secretary of Meslamtaea.
  • Zililitum, Vizier of Nin-gišhur'anna
  • Zišaggisaʾa, God, child of Ninmarki.
  • Zišumu, God in the centre of Nibru, son of Enmešarra.
  • Zurma-Zarmu, son of Ninmah.


The Balag Gods[]

The following are the Balag gods, divine instrument gods, who are usually asscoated with a lyre or drum, and serve a higher ranking divinity.


  • The Balag God Ušumgalkalama
  • The Balag God Šákušukalama
  • The Balag God Balag-Esia
  • The Balag God Ninšir-Balag
  • The Balag God Sur-Gal
  • The Balag God U-sur-ra
  • The Balag God Guduga
  • The Balag God Addunun


The Balag of Inanna


  • Ninsigarana
  • The Balag Goddess Ninigizibara


The Balag of Ninurta/Ningirsu:


  • Duga-Lugal-aniša-hunga
  • Nitazi
  • Duganisi


The Balag of Ninhursag:


  • Adgigi


The Balag of Ningal:


  • Nindagalzu
  • Nindamahdi


The Balag of Enlil:

  • Balag-Enlil
  • Ninlildagalsilim


The Balag of Ninkarak:

  • Ninhinuna


The Balag of Marduk:

  • En-nun-Dagal-la


The Balag of Zarpanit:

  • Gašan-šude-anna

The Apkallu[]

Seven half-human half-fish sages who brought to humanity the knowledge of civilisation, sent by Enki.

These are:

  • Uanna - Adapa "Who finished the plans for heaven and earth"
  • Uannedugga "Who was endowed with comprehensive intelligence"
  • Enmedugga "Who was allotted a good fate"
  • Enmegalamma "Who was born in a house"
  • Enmebulugga "Who grew up on pasture land"
  • An-Enlilda "The conjurer of the city of Eridu"
  • Utuabzu "Who ascended to heaven."

The Heavens[]

The Heavens are divided into

  • The Upper Heavens, of Luludanitu stone.
  • The Middle Heavens, of Saggilmut stone of the Igigu.
  • The Lower heaven is jasper of the stars, the constellations of the Gods were drawn on it.

Types of Demons[]

  • Lilitu, a demoness attacking expectant mothers
  • Kusarikku, Bull-Men demons
  • Humbaba
  • Urmahlulu, lions centaur demons
  • Ugallu, lion demon
  • Uma Naa Iru, lion dragon
  • Uridimuu, lion humanoid, Gate keeper of Marduk and Zarpanitum.
  • Mermen (Kulullu) and mermaids (Kuliltu), associated with Ea and streams.
  • Girtablullu, scorpion demons, guardians of the Mountain Mašu.
  • Mušhuššu, snake dragons, serve Ninazu
  • Ardat Lili/Lilu female demons who pray and molest on men, usually on flat rooftops, Lil Spirit
  • Etel Lili/Lilitu Phantom Bridegroom, Lil Spirit. The Lilu and Lilitu can be placated by an Ashipu ritual, whereby they are united in marriage and sent off to a home in the Netherworld.
  • Naššuqitu, Phantom Kisser, Lil Spirit
  • The Umu, personified Days, manifestations of Divine Will, of the Gods and their weapons. The "Evil Days" include "Day of One's Death" and the "Day of the Flood". The Evil Days are at the command of Adad, having the appearance of lions and lion-dragons.
  • Suhurmašu - A Carp Goat, carrying an Eru-stick, connected to excorcism.
  • Alû - "The wicked Alû who covers (man) like a garment." Demon with no lips, ears or mouth, possession by whom results in unconsciousness and comma.
  • Šedu Lemnu, Evil Genie, with human hands, a tiara, eagle talons, his left foot on a kušu animal.
  • Alluhappu (Hunting Net), has a lion head, four human hands and feet.
  • Mukil reš lemutti, Attendant of Evil, head of a bird, wings, human hands and feet
  • Humut-Tabal (Take Away Quickly), Ferryman, the head of an Anzu
  • Etemmu, Ghost, ox's head
  • Utukku Lemnu, Evil Spirit, Lion Head, hands and feet of an Anzu
  • Mamitu, Oath, Goat head
  • Suruppu, The Flood Water Disease.
  • Gululu, a Wind Demon.
  • Mimma Lemnu, Demon, "All that is Evil"
  • Rabišu, Demon, "The Croucher"
  • Šarabda, Demon, "Bailiff"
  • Tirid, "Expulsion"
  • Ahhazu, The Seizer (Jaundice)
  • Bibitu, Chills
  • Di'u, Malaria
  • Himtu, Fever, in the service of Ea/Enki
  • Qat Etemmi, Hand of a Ghost, Deputy of Ea/Enki
  • Kasistu, Consuming Fire
  • Kibbu, Burning
  • Labasu, A Disease
  • La'bu, Skin disease
  • Li'bu, Skin Disease
  • Ša ištet ammatu lanšu, Dwarf
  • Šulu, Wart
  • Ša Haribi, He of the Ruins
  • Massar Duri, Guardian of the Walls
  • Kinunu, Personified Stove
  • Qat Kinuni, Hand of the Stove disease
  • Aburrisanu, Insect Demon
  • Kattillu, Predator Demon
  • Adammu, "Strife"
  • Ippiru, "Struggle"
  • Anantu, "Battle"
  • Niziqtu, "Grief", Winged Naked Female Demon
  • Puluhtu, "Fear"
  • Kubu, demonic manifestations of stillborn
  • Urudu, Strong Copper Monster, Weapon of Anu

Temples and Priests[]

Types of Temples[]

  • Bit-Akiti (Temple of the Akitu Festival)
  • Ekuratu (Small sanctuary)
  • Kisallu (Sanctuary of the courtyard)
  • Papahanu (Inner Cellas)


Temples[]

Adab[]

  • E-Mah, Temple of Ninmah at Adab.
  • E-Namzu, Temple of Ninmah/Belet-ili at Adab.
  • E-Šar, the Shrine of Inanna at Adab.
  • Eidbillari, The Temple of Ninhursag at Adab


Akkad[]

  • Eulbar, Temple of Inanna at Agade
  • Ebarudi, Temple of Dummuzi at Agade
  • Ekušgal, the Ziggurat of Dummuzi at Agade
  • Emegalamma, The Temple of Inanna at Agade


Aššur[]

  • Ešaana, Temple of Anu at Aššur.
  • The Temple of Sin and Šamaš at Aššur
  • The Temple of Bel-šarru at Aššur
  • Eamkurkurra, The Temple of Enlil at Aššur
  • Edurmes, The Temple of Marduk and Ištar at Aššur
  • Egaledin, The Temple of Ištar at Milkia
  • Egašankalamma, The Temple of Ištar (of Arbela) at Arbela
  • Egišlamšaršar, Temple Tower of Adad in Aššur
  • Ekalseri, The Temple of Ištar at Milkia
  • EkiKUkuga, The Temple Tower of Ištar at Niniveh
  • Elukarerra, The Temple of Ningal at Aššur
  • Enamtila (I), the Temple of Bau/Gula at Aššur
  • Enathi, The Temple of Ištar at Niniveh
  • Enigbadua, The House of Amurru/Martu in Aššur
  • Esubbegeštu, The Temple of Kusug at Aššur
  • The Temple of the Sibitti at Aššur


Babylon[]

  • Esabad, The Temple of Ninkarrak at Babylon.
  • Ešaturra, The Temple of Išhara at Babylon.
  • Ešurugal, The Temple of Ererškigal at Kutha.
  • Ešahulla, The Temple of Inanna at Kazallu
  • Eburanna, The Temple of Tašmetu at Babylon
  • Edaranna, The Temple of Enlil at Babylon
  • Edimanna, The Temple of Nanna/Sin at Borsippa
  • Eesirkalama, The Temple of Nabu at Babylon
  • Edurgina, The Temple of Lugalasal at Bas
  • Eešmah, the Temple of Ištar at Babylon
  • Egeštu-Nisaba, The Temple of Nisaba at Babylon
  • Egišharankia, The Temple of Belit-Nina at Babylon
  • Egula, The Temple of Ninkarrak at Borsippa
  • Etila, The Temple of Ninkarrak at Borsippa
  • Ezibatila, The Temple of Ninkarrak at Borsippa
  • E-zida, The Temple of Nabu at Borsippa
  • Ehadkalammasum, The Temple of Nabu at Babylon
  • Ehilikalama, The Tempe of Ašratu at Babylon
  • Ehursagsikilla, The Temple of Ninkarrak at Babylon
  • Ehursagtila, The Temple of Nabu and Ninurta at Babylon
  • Enammah, The Temple of Adad at Babylon
  • Enamhe, The Temple of Adad at Kumari
  • Emeslam, the Temple of Nergal at Kutha
  • Gal bit Dumuzi ša qímit, The Temple of Dumuzi, "of the Burning", at Babylon

Bad-Tibira[]

  • Einninkalamma, The Temple of Ištar at Bad-Tibira
  • Emuškalama, The Temple of Inanna at Bad-tibira


Eridu[]

  • Eabzu, Temple of Ea at Eridu


Isin[]

  • Eunamtila, Temple of Ninkarrak at Isin
  • Edamalla, The Temple of Pabilsag at Isin
  • Egalriri, the Temple of Gula/Bau at Isin
  • Erabri, The Temple of Bau and Ninurta at Isin
  • Esigmezidu, The Temple of Inanna at Isin


Kish[]

  • E-mete-ursag, Temple of Zababa at Kish
  • E-hursag-kalama, Temple of Inanna at Kish
  • Eguddu, Temple of Nindara at Kish
  • Eakkil, The Temple of Papsukkal at Kiš
  • Ekišibba, The Temple of Zababa at Kiš


Lagaš[]

  • Bagara, Shrine of Ninurta/Ningirsu at Lagaš
  • E-Tiraš, the Temple of Ninurta/Ningirsu at Lagaš
  • E-˙egal-kalamam, temple of Ninurta/Ningirsu at Antasur
  • Dimgal-abzu, Temple of Ninurta/Ningirsu
  • Eš-dugru, Temple of Ninurta/Ningirsu
  • Ibgal, the Temple of Inanna at Lagaš
  • E-mehušgal-anki, the Temple of Igalim at Girsu
  • Kituš-akkile, the Temple of Šulšagana at Girsu
  • Eadda-imsagga, The Temple of Enlil at Lagaš
  • Eab, The Temple of Enlil at Girsu
  • The Temple of Hendursagga at Lagaš
  • E-Gatumdu, The Temple of Gatumdug at Lagaš
  • E-Ninmah, Temple of Ninmah at Lagaš
  • E-Sagub, the Temple of Ama-geštin at Lagaš
  • E-Engur, the Temple of Nanše at Zulum
  • E-babbar, Temple of Šamaš at Girsu
  • E-sirara, Temple of Nanše at Nina
  • E-Dumuziabzu, Temple of Dumuziabzu at Kinunir
  • The Temple of Lammašaga at Girsu
    • The Temple of Zazaru
    • The Temple of Nipa'e
    • The Temple of Urnunta'e
  • Elaldu, the Temple of Nindara at Ki´eša
  • Eanšudur, the Temple of Ensignun at Lagaš
  • Eerimkudkud, The Temple of Nergal at Lagaš
  • Eunuga, The Temple of Ninurta and Bau at Lagaš


Malgium[]

  • Ekišugeštu, The Temple of Dingirmah at Malgium
  • Enamtila (II), The Temple of Dingirmah at Malgium


Marad[]

  • Ešatena, The Temple of Inanna at Marad.
  • Eigkalamma, The Temple of Lugalmarada at Marad


Nippur[]

  • E-kur, Temple of Enlil at Nippur
    • E-Kiur, Temple of Ninlil at Nippur
  • Bara-dur-gar-ra, Temple of Inanna at Nippur
  • E-padun-tila, Temple of Ninurta at Nippur
  • Eamerkug, The Temple of Nintinugga at Nippur
  • Egimah, The Temple of Šuzianna at Nippur
  • Enamtla (III), The Temple of Enlil, Ninlil and Ninurta at Nippur
  • Ešumedu, The Temple of Ninurta in Nippur
  • E-melam-anna, The Temple of Nusku at Nippur

Shuruppak[]

  • Ešaba, The Temple of Ninkarrak at Shuruppak
  • Nigin-gar-ku, Temple of Inanna at Shuruppak
  • Enigingarra, The Temple of Ištar at Šuruppak


Sippar[]

  • E-babbar, Temple of Šamaš and Aya at Sippar
  • Eulla, The Temple of Ninkarrak at Sippar
  • Eedina, The Temple of Aya/Aya-Belit at Sippar


Umma[]

  • Ešagipada, the Temple of Šara at Umma.
  • Gi-gun-na, the Temple of Inanna at Zabala.
  • Eibgal, the Temple of Inanna at Umma
  • E-ibe-Anu, The Temple of Uraš at Dilbat


Ur[]

  • The Temple of Ninhursag at Ur.
  • E-tilmun-na, the Temple of Ištar at Ur.
  • Enunkug, The Temple of Ninmah at Ur
  • Edublalmah, The Temple of Nanna at Ur.
  • Eginabdu, The Temple of Nanna at Ur
  • Egiparkug, The Temple of Ningal at Ur
  • Eguddu, The Temple of Nindara at Keš
  • Ekeški, The Temple of Ninhursag at Keš
  • Eidlušubgukalama, The Temple of Ningal at Ur
  • Ekarzida, the Temple of Ningal and Nanna at Ur
  • EkiKUšatenbi, The Temple of Zababa at Ur
  • Emudkurra, The Temple of Nanna at Ur
  • Ešuib, The Tenmple of Ninlil at Ur


Uruk[]

  • Eana, The Temple of Ištar at Uruk
    • The Temple of Usur-Amassu
    • The Chapel of Ninurta-of-the-Courtyard (Ninurta-ša-kisalli)
    • The Shrine of Ningišzida
  • Emete-Irra, The Temple of Nergal at Uruk
  • The Temple of Ninurta at Uruk
  • E-Nusku, the Temple of Nusku at Uruk
  • Emelamanna, The Temple of Šamaš at Uruk
  • E-Namma, Temple of Namma at Uruk
  • Eturnunna, Temple of Nanna at Uruk
  • Eebar-Gišgibilgameš, The Temple of Gilgameš at Uruk
  • Eešgal, The Temple of all the Gods in Uruk
  • Ehenuna, The Temple of Adad at Uruk
  • Eigidua, The Temple of Ištar at Kullab
  • Ekankal, The Temple of Lugalbanda and Ninsun at Uruk
  • Ekannanu, The Temple of Ištar and Nana at Uruk


The Small Sanctuaries (Ekurattu)


  • E-He-Nunna, the Temple of Adad at Uruk
  • The Temple of Amurru at Uruk
  • The Temple of Gašru at Uruk
  • The Temple of Nabu at Uruk
  • E-Zababa, The Temple of Zababa at Uruk
  • Ešusiga, The Temple of Ninšubur at Uruk

Divine Accountrements[]

  • Agu (tiara)
  • Kululu (crown)
  • Arzallu (jewel in tiara)
  • Ayari (rosette in tiara)
  • Gappu (feather in tiara)
  • Diglu - Gem
  • Elirimmatu - Egg-shaped ornament
  • In seri - Snake-eye ornament
  • Kumaru - Framed ornament
  • Maknaktu - Seal
  • Šamšu - sun-disk ornament
  • Erimmatu - Egg shaped tiara ornament
  • Inbu - Fruit shaped crown ornament
  • Šihittu - Šihittu Plant shaped tiara ornament
  • Irtu Ša Uskari - Crescent Shaped breastplace
  • Irtu hurasi ebbi - Golden Breat Ornament
  • Irtu Ahanu Hurasi - Winged Golden breastplate
  • Irtu ša apsasi - Breastplate representing a sphinx
  • Irat hurasi ša neši - Golden Breastplate representing a lion
  • Irtu ša seri tebi - Breastplate representing a rising snake
  • Dudittu - Fibula brooch
  • Harharu - Chain
  • Insabtu - Earring
  • Qudašu - Ring
  • Semeru - Bracelet
  • Mušiltu - comb
  • Mušalu - comsetic jar
  • Muttabilu - Cosmetics recipient
  • Namaru - mirror
  • Algamelišu - Steatite
  • Ašgiku - Turquoise
  • Pappardilu - Banded Agate
  • Samtu - Carnelian
  • Uqnu - Lapis Lazuli

Figurines[]

  • Issuru - Bird
  • Kasusu - Falcon
  • Nešu - Lion
  • Sabitu - Gazelle


Components of Shrines and Cellas[]

  • Alman Hurasi - Golden Shrine
  • Gidlu - Door-Curtain
  • Kigallu - Pedestal
  • Labbu - Lion Sculpture
  • Suppu - Braided Curtain
  • Šamu - Canopy
  • Šiddu - Dividing Curtain
  • Šubtu - altar/cultic seat
  • Lallu - Ballustrade
  • Zaratu - Tent

Ceremonial Temple Vehicles[]

  • Attaru - Wagon
  • Narkabtu - Chariot

Temple Furniture[]

  • Adaru - Stand
  • Eršu - Bed
  • Kankannu - Potstand
  • Nignakku - Censer
  • Kišukku - Grate
  • Paššuru - Offering Table
  • Pišannu - Chest
  • Šiddatu - Stand for a container

Cultic Vessels[]

  • Dannu - Vat
  • Namharu - Vat
  • Hussu
  • Huttu - Storage Jar
  • Kallu - Bowl
  • Makkassu - Bowl
  • Malitu - Bowl
  • Qabutu - Bowl
  • Ruqqu - Bowl
  • Libbu - Heart-shaped Vessel
  • Maqqu - Libation bowl
  • Masabbu - Basket
  • Masabbu Karu - Basket on a stand
  • Mašqu - Drinking Vessel
  • Me-qati - Water basin
  • Mušahhinu - Kettle
  • Namzitu - Fermenting vat
  • Našappu - Container
  • Šappatu - Container
  • Šappu - Container
  • Šappu Karu - Container on a stand
  • Šussullu - Fish box

Textile[]

  • Kitinnu - Linen Towel
  • Paruktu - Canvas
  • Sunu - Cloth
  • Tahapšu - Blanket

Priestly offices[]

Lay Ecstatics deliver messages after reaching a status of frenzy or ecstasy, immaḫḫima.

  • The Kur-ĝara Priest
  • The Lu-maḫ Priest
  • The Išib Priest
  • The Gala Mah: Chief lamentation priest
  • The En: A High Priest/Priestess of a very important deity, usually of the opposite gender, residing in a residence called a Gipar. The En wear an Aga (crown) in the shape of a circlet. An En Priest/Priestess also usually wears boots made of red leather. The En of Nanna has the secondary traditional title of Zirru (Hen Bird).
  • The Ereš-diĝir: A High Priestess of a lesser deity. The Ereš-diĝir may wear an Aga circlet, or a large shawl worn ower the head.
  • The Nin-diĝir Priestess: A High Priestess
  • The Egir-zid Priestess
  • The Gudug Priest, who is tasked with purification rituals in a temple.
  • The Barû-priest: A seer
  • The Mašmašu Priest: A priest banishing evil presence and performing incantations.
  • The Mahhu: an ecstatic functionary
  • Raggintu: women who deliver divine messages for Ištar and Ninlil.
  • Raggimu: men chosen as recipients of divine messages.
  • Apilum/Apiltum: "answerers", prophets.
  • The Saĝ-ursaĝ functionary
  • Kalum: regular lamentation priest.


List of Gipar[]

  • The Gipar of the En of Nanna at Ur
  • The Gipar of the En of Ningublaga at Ur
  • The Gipar of the En of Nanna at Gaeš
  • The Gipar of the En of Inanna at Uruk
  • The Gipar of the En of Nanše at Ningin
  • The Gipar of the En of Enki at Eridu


Other High Priestley Offices[]

  • A term for High Priest of a god is Šešgallu.
  • A temple administrator is called a "šabra".
  • A temple head is called a Sanga.
  • The Qammattum of Dagan of Terga in Mari. A Female Prophet devoted to Dagan.
  • The Assinnū of Annunītum at Mari. Frenetic Priests of Annunītum. The Assinnu perform rituals by lacerating and exhausting themselves, in order to be possessed by the deity.
  • The Qadištu are female temple officials, usually operating Maternal Huts where they provide assistance to women in labour. During the processions to the Adad Temple, they intone and sustain the inhu chant and raise aloft a statue of Šamaš. At Sippar they are dedicated to the God Adad.
  • The Naditum of Šamaš at Sippar: a virgin (kallum) daughter in law to Šamaš and Aya, who'se main duties revolve around providing intercession prayers for the community. Initiated into Šamaš's household during the Šebut Šattim Festival (December/January), where they receive the biblum (betrothal gift) of Šamaš. She has the "rope of Šamaš" placed on her arm as a sign of devotion to Šamaš and Aya. On the second day of the Festival the newly initiated Naditum must make intercession prayers on behalf of her sister Naditum. There are also Naditum of Ninurta at Nippur.

Other Temple Offices[]

Temples usually employ musicians, male and female, aside from the Kalum who are usually castrate priests, and kezertum, female percussionists. Other non musical cultic personel include jesters, snake charmes, bear trainers and acrobatic dancers (huppum) who'se performence often takes the form of stages sword fighting.

Temple Musicians can be concecrated to a God and thus finance their stay at the Temple.

The staff in Naditum cloisters in Sippar consist of Overseer, director of personnel, female scibe, a nadiatum scribe, judge of the cloister, overseer of the uqbabtum-women, steward farmer, officials presiding over workers, including female weavers, servant girls, female cooks, overseer of sailors, and Sutean guards of sesame fields.

Lallaru (howlers) and Munambû (wailers) are professional mourners.


Prebends[]

Prebends are hereditary temple and priestley offices.


Prebends of Ištar at Uruk[]
  • Atutu, Prebend of the Door-keeper of the Bit-Akiti of Ištar
  • Erib-Bitutu, Prebend of officiant admitted to the sanctuary of Ištar.
  • Kalamahutu, Prebend of the Chief Cultic singer of Ištar.
  • Mar-re'ut-šizbi, Prebend of the dairyman of Ištar.


Prebends of Nanaya at Uruk[]
  • Rab banutu
  • Sarrarutu
  • Sirašutu, a Brewer's prebend
  • Nuhatimmutu, a Baker's prebend
  • Kalamahutu


Prebends of Beltu-ša-Reš[]
  • Rab banutu
  • Sirašutu
  • Nuhatimmutu


Prebends of Usur-Amassu at Uruk[]
  • Sirašutu
  • Nuhatimmutu
  • Tabihutu, a meat carver's prebend


Prebends of Urkayitu at Uruk[]
  • Tabihutu


Prebends of Kanisurra at Uruk[]
  • Nuhatimmutu
  • Erib-Bitutu

Myths[]

Inanna and Enki[]

Inanna goes to the Abzu of Enkidu, intent on increasing the might of her beloved city, Eridu. Enkidu orders his vizier Isimud, "The Sweet Name of Heaven", to prepare a feast for her.

Enki and Inanna then have a competition on who can drink the most wine. Intoxicated, Enki gives to Inanna the sacred Me, the physically embodied divine decrees that are the foundation of civilisation, the Me being named as: the office of en priest, the office of lagar priest, divinity, the great and good crown, the royal throne, the noble sceptre, the staff and crook, the noble dress, shepherdship, kingship, the office of egir-zid priestess, the office of nin-diĝir priestess, the office of išib priest, the office of lu-maḫ priest, the office of gudug priest, constancy, going down to the underworld, coming up from the underworld, the kur-ĝara priest, the sword and club, the cultic functionary saĝ-ursaĝ, the black garment, the colourful garment, Where are the standard, the quiver, sexual intercourse, kissing, prostitution, forthright speech, deceitful speech, grandiloquent speech, holy niĝin-ĝar shrine, the mistress of heaven, loud musical instruments, the art of song, venerable old age, the cultic prostitute, the holy tavern, running, heroism, power, wickedness, righteousness, the plundering of cities, making lamentations, rejoicing, the craft of the carpenter, the craft of the coppersmith, the craft of the scribe, the craft of the smith, the craft of the leather-worker, the craft of the fuller, the craft of the builder, the craft of the reed-worker, wisdom, attentiveness, holy purification rites, the shepherd's hut, piling up glowing charcoals, the sheepfold, respect, awe, reverent silence, the kindling of fire, the extinguishing of fire, hard work, the assembled family, descendants, strife, triumph, counselling, comforting, judging, decision-making, righteousness, plundering of cities, making lamentations, rejoicing, deceit, the rebel lands, kindness, being on the move, being sedentary, the šem and ala drums, the sweet-sounding tigi instruments.

Inanna loads the Me onto the The Boat of Heaven and makes way towards Eridu. When Enki sobers up, he realises his mistake and sends his minister Isimud, to order the Boat to be returned to Enki. Inanna opposes this, citing the holy word of Enki, saying

"How could my father have changed what he said to me? How could he have altered his promise as far as I am concerned? How could he have discredited his important words to me? Was it falsehood that my father said to me, did he speak falsely to me? Has he sworn falsely by the name of his power and by the name of his abzu? Has he duplicitously sent you to me as a messenger?"

Isimud is accompanied in the seven resting places where he reaches the Boat of Heaven, by the enkum-creatures, the fifty flying uru-giants, the fifty lahama-monsters, the sound-piercing kugalgal, the enunun and the watchmen of the Iturungal Canal. Each time they attempt to seize the boat but Ninšubur repells them all.

Then finally the Boat of Heaven arrives at the Gate of Joy at Unug Kulaba. It is paraded through the streets of Eridu. Her instructions to the King are as follows

" He shall recite great prayers. The king shall slaughter bulls, shall sacrifice sheep. He shall pour beer from a bowl. He shall have the šem and ala drums sound, and have the sweet-sounding tigi instruments play. The foreign lands shall declare my greatness. My people shall utter my praise."".


The Myth of Anzu[]

In great antiquity, the Igigi bring news to Enlil of the birth of Anzu. Ea and Enlil regard Anzu, and Ea says that Anzu was conceived by the pure waters of the Abzu and the earth. He tells Enlil to make Anzu one of his throne guards.

Anzu, as Enlil's throne guard, observed Enlil bathing in Holy water, discarding his crown and the Tablet of Destinies. Anzu wishes to posses the power of Enlil and so he steals the Tablet of Destinies and flees to the mountains. The Gods assembled at Ekur and Anu spoke and adressed his son the Gods, asking for a champion to come forth to fight Anzu and retrieve the Tablet of Destinies. He summons Adad and offers him great rewards, being without rival among the gods, establishing "cult centres all over the four quarters". Adad refuses, saying:

"Father, who could rush off to the inaccessible mountain? Has taken away the Enlil-power: rites are abandoned! Anzu flew off and went into hiding! His utterance has replaced that of Duranki´s god! He has only to command, and whoever he curses turns to clay! At his utterance, the gods must now tremble!'"

Anu summons Gerra and offers him the same rewards as Adad, but Gerra refuses with the same words as Adad. Anu then summons Šara, but he too refuses. Ea speaks to Anu to summon the Goddess Mammi. She is offered to be named Mistress of All Gods if she should send her son Ninurta to battle Anzu. Mammi agrees and tells Ninurta to go battle Anzu. Ninurta "The Lord marshalled the Seven of Battle, The warrior marshalled the seven evil winds, Who dance in the dust, the seven whirlwinds, He mustered a battle array, made war with a terrifying formation".

He meets Anzu on the top of the mountain. Anzu proclaims:

"I have taken away every single rite, And I am in charge of al the gods´ orders!"

Ninurta responds:

"I am the avenger of Duranki´s god, Who established Duranki, of the broad Earth, of Ea king of destinies."

Ninurta attempts to shoot his arrows at Anzu, but Anzu uses the Tablet to decompose the parts of his arrow into it's constituent elements, saying:

"You, shaft that came, return to your reed thicket! Bow frame, back to your copse! Bow string, back to the ram´s gut! Feathers, return to the birds!"

Ninurta told Šarur, his weapon, a talking mace, to report to "far-sighted Ea" what happened. Ea then has Šarur advise Ninurta to cut off the pinions of Anzu, to throw a throw-stick after his arrows, saying that Ninurta should let the wind bring Anzu's feathers as a sign of victory.

Ninurta indeed throws a throwing stick to follow his arrows, cutting off the pinions of Anzu. He then throws a dart through the heart and lungs of Anzu, killing him. He recovered the Tablet of Destinies and the wind bore Anzu's feathers to teh Gods as a sign of victory. Enlil then summons Birdu to go to meet Ninurta, congratulate him and retrieve the Tablet for Enlil.

Ninurta's victory is then proclaimed by Birdu

"Warrior, in your powerfulness, when you slew the mountain, You captured Anzu, slew him in powefulness, Slew soaring Anzu in his powerfulness. Because you were so brave and slew the mountain, You made all foes kneel at the feet of Enlil your father, Ninurta, because you were so brave and slew the mountain, You have made all foes kneel at the feet of Enlil your father, You have won complete dominion, every single rite, Who was ever created like you? The mountain´s rites are proclaimed, The shrines of the gods of fates granted to you. They call upon Nissaba for your purification cerimony; They call your name in the furrow Ningirsu. They designate for you the entire shepherding of peoples, Give your great name as Duku for kingship."


The Exploits of Ninurta[]

After a hymn of praise to Ninurta, Šarur, his talking mace, warns Ninurta of the birth from the Earth of the demon Asag. Asag "has sired offspring in the Mountains, and spread its seeds far and wide". The plants proclaimed him king, "The šu, the sajkal, the esi (diorite), the usium, the kagina (haematite), and the heroic nu stones, its warriors, constantly come raiding the cities.". Šarur tells Ninurta that Asag had erected a throne dais and is settling the Laws of the land as Ninurta does. Šarur says that Asag's victims are pleading for the help of Ninurta, and that Asag is attempting to seize the powers Ninurta received in the Abzu.

Ninurta then went to the Ekur. He found the mountains devastaed. He "rode on the eight winds towards the rebel lands". He smote the enemy with hus club and mace. "An enormous hurricane, irresistible, went before the Hero", levelling the land, making coals fall from the sky and many humans being burned by the flames, overturning the trees, muddying up the Tigris.

Ninurta then went to battle on board the Ma-kar-nunta-eda boat. "The people there did not know where to turn, they bumped into (?) the walls. The birds there tried to lift their heads to fly away, but their wings trailed on the ground. The storm flooded out the fish there in the subterranean waters, their mouths snapped at the air. It reduced the animals of the open country to firewood, roasting them like locusts. It was a deluge rising and disastrously ruining the Mountains." Ninurta marched through the rebel lands, killing the enemies' messengers and crushing their cities, smoting their cowheards, tying the rebels' hands with hirin grass, and then smashing their heads against the walls. "The Lord caused bilious poison to run over the rebel lands."

"As he went the gall followed, anger filled his heart, and he rose like a river in spate and engulfed all the enemies. In his heart he beamed at his lion-headed weapon, as it flew up like a bird, trampling the Mountains for him."

Šarur then flew to Ninurta and told him the plans of the Mountains. Šarur tells Ninurta that Asag is waiting for him in the mountains, but tells him not to fight Asag.

Ninurta instead marches forward with his army in the vanguard, smiting the enemy once more. The Asag leaps into battle, uprooting the sky as a club, sliding along the ground like a snake. "Like a wall collapsing, the Asag fell on Ninurta the son of Enlil. " The Gods despair, thinking Ninurta has died. Enlil says to Ninlil:

"My wife, my son is no longer here; what is there to support me? The Lord, the authority of the E-kur, the King who imposes the strong shackle for his father, a cedar rooted in the abzu, a crown with broad shade, my son, my security -- he is not here any more: who will take me by the hand?"

Šarur, Ninurta's mace, goes to Enlil and tells him Ninurta lives. Enlil advises it on how to fight Asag, and then, saying:

"Let him not cause to perish the name of all the kinds of species whose destinies I, Enlil, have decreed."

Šarur returns to Ninurta and tells him what Enlil told him:

"Let him take the Asag by the shoulder, let him pierce its liver, let my son enter with it into the E-kur. Then, Ninurta, to the limits of the earth my people will deservedly praise your power."

Šarur then tells Ninurta that Asag "constructed a wall of stakes on an earthen rampart", and that the fortress is too high and can't be reached.

Ninurta pointed his mace at the mountain and pounded it and set it ablaze.

"The murderous weapon smashed skulls with its painful teeth, the club which tears out entrails gnashed its teeth. The lance was stuck into the ground and the crevasses filled with blood. In the rebel lands dogs licked it up like milk."

Howeve Šarur cannot hurt Asag, again warning Ninurta not to fight the demon, saying:

"The sheepfolds have been closed by ghostly demons. It has dried up the waters in the ground. In the whirlwind storm, the people are finished, they have no solution (?). From an implacable enemy, great Hero, Lord, turn away,"

Ninurta becomes angry at these words and goes on a rampage. He faced Asag, "he pounded the Asag like roasted barley", defeated Asag.

After sundown Ninurta washed the blood from his clothes. He proclaimed a victory chant over Asag's body. The Gods of the land came to Ninurta."Like exhausted wild asses they prostrated themselves before him." Šarur then praises Ninurta's valour.

Ninurta then says

"From today forward, do not say Asag: its name shall be Stone. Its name shall be zalag stone, its name shall be Stone. This, its entrails, shall be the underworld. Its valour shall belong to the Lord."


Then a great famine falls on the land. Water flows and destroys land as there are no ditches yet dug. Ninurta solves the problem by digging and damming up cities. He then leads scattered lakes into the Tigris.

At this time his mother Ninmah wept for the mountains, where she conceived him. Ninurta proclaims that the "pile" he piled up should be named mountain "Hursag" and his mother should be named it's Lady ("Nin"), giving her the name Ninhursag, saying

"Let its meadows produce herbs for you. Let its slopes produce honey and wine for you. Let its hillsides grow cedars, cypress, juniper and box for you. Let it make abundant for you ripe fruits, as a garden. Let the mountain supply you richly with divine perfumes. Let it mine gold and silver for you, Let it smelt copper and tin for you, make its tribute for you. Let the Mountains make wild animals teem for you. Let the mountain increase the fecundity of quadrupeds for you. You, o Queen, become equal to An, wearing a terrifying splendour. Great goddess who detests boasting, good lady, maiden Ninhursaga, approach me. Lady, I have given you great powers: may you be exalted."

Ninhursag told Ninurta he has not fixed the desitines of the enemies he has slain.

Ninurta turns to the U stone (emery), cursing it,:

"U stone (emery), since you rose against me in the Mountains, since you barred the way so as to detain me, since you swore to put me to death, since you frightened me, Lord Ninurta, on my great throne; you are powerful, a youth of outstanding strength: may your size be diminished. A mighty lion, confident in its strength, will tear you into pieces, the strong man will fling you in his hand in combat. Like a great wild bull killed by many people, be divided into portions. U stone, you will be hounded from the battlefield with clubs, like a dog chased by shepherd boys. Because I am the Lord: since cornelian is polished by you, you shall be called by its name. And now, according to the destiny fixed by Ninurta, henceforth when u stone touches it, there will be pierced cornelian. Let it be so."

Ninurta then names the destiny of the šu and gasura stones.

"Šu stones, since you attacked against my weapons; gasura stones, since you stood fiercely against me like bulls, since you tossed your horns in the dust at me like wild bulls, you shall be like butterflies. My terrifying splendour will cover you. Since you cannot escape from my great strength, the goldsmith shall puff and blow on you with his breath. You shall be shaped by him to form a matrix for his creations. People shall place the first fruits of the gods on you at the time of the new moon."

Ninurta then names the destiny of the Gulgul and Sajjar stones.

"Sajkal stone, since you flew up against me; gulgul stone, since you sparked lightning against me; sajjar stone, since you shook your head at me, since you ground your teeth at me, the Lord! The sajkal stone will smash you, sajjar stone, young brave, and the gulgul stone will destroy you. You will be discarded as contemptible and valueless. Be a prey to the famine of the Land; you shall be fed by the charity of your city. You shall be accounted a common person, a warrior among slave-girls. They shall say to you "Be off with you, hurry!", it shall be your name. And now, by the destiny fixed by Ninurta, henceforth you shall be called a bad lot in the Land. So be it"

Ninurta then names the destiny of the Esi stones.

"Esi, your army in battle changed sides separately. You spread before me like thick smoke. You did not raise your hand. You did not attack me. Since you said, "It is false. The Lord is alone the Hero. Who can vie with Ninurta, son of Enlil?" -- they shall extract you from the highland countries. They shall bring you from the land of Magan. You shall shape Strong Copper like leather and then you shall be perfectly adapted for my heroic arm, for me, the Lord. When a king who is establishing his renown for perpetuity has had its statues sculpted for all time, you shall be placed in the place of libations -- and it shall suit you well -- in my temple E-ninnu, the house full of grace."

Ninurta then names the destiny of the na stone.

"Stone, since you said, "If only it had been me"; na stones, since you bewitched my powers -- lie down there, you, to be worked on like a pig. Be discarded, be used for nothing, end up by being reduced to tiny fragments. He who knows you shall reduce you to liquid."

Ninurta then names the destiny of the elel stone.

"Elel, intelligently you caused terror of me to descend on the Mountains where discord had broken out. In the rebel lands you proclaimed my name among my people who had banded together. Nothing of your wholeness shall be diminished. It shall be difficult to reduce your mass to small pieces. My divine ordinances shall be set out in straight lines on your body. You shall be greatly suited to the clash of weapons, when I have heroes to slay. You shall be set up on a pedestal in my great courtyard. The Land shall praise you in wonder, the foreign lands shall speak your praises."

Ninurta then names the destiny of the kagina stone.

"Young man worthy of respect, whose surface reflects the light, kagina, when the demands of the rebel lands reached you, I did not conquer you ....... I did not notice you among the hostile ones. I shall make room for you in the Land. The divine rites of Utu shall become your powers. Be constituted as a judge in the foreign lands. The craftsman, expert in everything, shall value you as if gold. Young man of whom I have taken possession, because of you I shall not sleep until you come to life. And now, according to the destiny fixed by Ninurta, henceforth kagina shall live! So shall it be."

Ninurta then names the destiny of the jišnugal (alabaster) stone.

" Whose body shines like the daylight! Purified silver, youth destined for the palace, since you alone held out your hands to me, and you prostrated yourself before me in your Mountains, I did not smite you with the club, and I did not turn my strength against you. Hero, you stood firm by me when I yelled out. Your name shall be called benevolence. The treasury of the Land shall be subject to your hand, you shall be its seal-keeper."

Ninurta then names the destiny of the algameš stone.

"What provision did you make to assist my progress? Be the first to go into my forge. Algameš, you shall be the regular sacrifice offered daily by the smiths."

Ninurta then adressed dušia stone, the nir, the gug (cornelian), zagin (lapis lazuli); the amaš-pa-ed, the šaba, the hurizum, the gug-gazi, the marhali, the egi-zaga and the girin-hiliba:

"How you came to my side, male and female in form, and in your own way! You committed no fault, and you supported me with strength. You exalted me in public. Now in my deliberation, I shall exalt you. Since you made yourself general of the assembly, you, nir, shall be chosen for syrup and for wine. You shall all be decorated with precious metal. The principal among the gods shall cause the foreign lands to prostrate themselves before you, putting their noses to the ground."

Ninurta then names the destiny of the jir-zu-jal (flint):

"Ah, duplicitous jir-zu-jal, what then? They shall split your horns, wild bull, in your Mountains. You were not equal to me who supported you. I shall rip you like a sack, and people will smash you into tiny pieces. The metalworker shall deal with you, he shall use his chisel on you. Young man, massive, bearer of hatred: the carpenter, saying "I wish to buy it for my work", shall wet you with water and shall crush you like malt."

Ninurta then names the destiny of the iman stones, he addressed the alliga stones

"Iman stones, in the Mountains you cried out against me. You fiercely uttered battle-yells. I shall enflame you like fire. Like a storm I shall overturn you. I shall strip you like rushes. I shall rip you up like weeds. Who will assist you then? Iman stone: your cries shall not be valued, no attention shall be paid to them. Iman stone, alliga stone: your path shall not lead to the palace."

Ninurta then names the destiny of the mašda stone, the dubban and urutum:

"Mašda stone, dubban stone, blazing fires; urutum stone, which nothing resists; when the gasura stone and you were set ablaze, you burnt against me in the rebel lands like a brazier. Since you all stood against me in the land of Saba: mašda stone, they shall slaughter you like a sheep. Dubban stone, they shall crunch you for pulverising. Urutum stone, they shall sharpen you for the battle-mace; with bronze, the arrowheads of the gods, they shall smash you with the axe, stinging with fierce swords."

Ninurta then names the destiny of the šagara stone:

"Šagara stone, who smash your head against anyone travelling alone in the desert, in the Mountains when my arms were occupied you tried to trample on me. Since you glutted yourself in the battle, the reed-worker shall make the reeds jump with you. You shall be thrown onto your couch; the appearance of your mother and father who bore you shall be forgotten. No one shall say to you, "Get up", no one shall have the feeling that he misses you, the people shall not complain about your loss. In praise of the eternally-created powers in Ninhursaga's resting place, you shall be discarded on the dais there. They shall feed you on malt, as they do for sheep; you shall content yourself with a portion of scattered flour. This shall be the explanation for you."

Ninurta then names the destiny of the marhuša stone:

"Marhuša, you were taken, since you did not participate in the crimes of your city, you shall be the bowl under the filter-jug, the water shall filter into you. Marhusa, you shall be used for inlay-work, You shall be the perfect ornament for sacred brooches. Marhuca, you shall be duly praised in the temples of the gods."

Ninurta then names the destiny of the haštum stone:

"Haštum stone, you cried out against me in the Mountains. You yelled fiercely with wild battle-yells. With your yelling, you fixed a lila demon in the Mountains. Young man, because of your digging, Ditch shall be your name. And now, according to the destiny of Ninurta, henceforth they shall say haštum. So be it."

Ninurta then names the destiny of the durul stone:

"Durul stone, holy garment of mourning, blinded youth whom people carve, in the Mountains you prostrated yourself before me. Since you said to me, "If only it had been me who broke the bars of the gates, if only I had stood before him, before my King, Lord Ninurta", your name shall be magnified of its own accord wherever it is mentioned. As the connoisseur says of precious metal, "I will buy it", so the foreign nations, like musicians playing the reed-pipe, shall pursue you."

Ninurta then names the destiny šigšig stone, the engen and ezinum stones, the ug-gun, the hem, the madanum, the sajgirmud and the mursuh stones:

"With ribs drawn in, balancing on the haunches, heart elated, legs bent like a bear, I shall come to you; now, being an ally, you come forward from all of them; who shall extend the hand to them? You were the club, you stood as the doorway. In the Land, the champion shall always look (?) with favour on you."

Ninurta then names the destiny kurgaranum stone and bal stone:

"Since you said, "I will bring forth the people the young man who has obtained glory for you; the young artisan shall sing your praises. You shall be favoured for the festival of spirits of the dead." He assigned them to the cult of Ninhursaga.

Ninurta then boards his beloved boat, the Ma-kar-nunta-eda, while praises are sung to him by the people. The boat is pilled with riches and floats off. The Annunaki come to meet Ninurta, pressing their noses to the ground and their hands on their chest. They pronounce a prayer and supplication to Ninurta. Enlil adresses Ninurta, praising him too.


Angim[]

Ninurta arrives with his entourage, consisting of Udanne, Lugalanbara and Lugalkurdub at Ekur. On his shinning chariot he hung all the creatures he defeated in battle, namely a Six-headed wild ram, the Warrior dragon, a Bison demon Kusarikku, a mermaid, the winged horned snake with forelegs called Bašmu, Anzu, the seven headed serpent Mušmaḫḫū, as well as precious items, namely "strong copper", the Magilum Boat, wild bulls, cows and gypsum.


He heads to the Palace of Enlil, however before he arrives he is stopped by Nusku, Enlil's vizier. He welcomes Ninurta and asks for him to not frighten the other gods. Ninurta arrives at the palace, leading his cows and bulls into the temple. Then Ninlil spoke to him and admired his strength. Ninurta praised his might and the might of his weapons and then demanded Enlil bring his battle throphies into the temple and then bathe his victorious arms, proclaiming the superiority of his Temple and his city, Nippur. Finally, he is adressed by one of his attendants, the barber God Ninkarnunna, who asks that Ninurta stay favourable to his city and it's king.


Inanna's descent to the netherworld[]

Inanna descends to the netherworld , abandoning all her shrines. She takes seven divine powers, puts on a turban, headgear for the open country, a wig and hangs lapis-lazuli beads around her neck, places twin egg-shaped beads on her breast and covered her body with a pala dress "the garment of ladyship", putting mascara on her eyes and oil on her body.

She travels to the netherworld with her minister, Ninšubur.

Inanna tells Ninšubur:

"Come my faithful minister of E-ana, my minister who speaks fair words, my escort who speaks trustworthy words."

"On this day I will descend to the underworld. When I have arrived in the underworld, make a lament for me on the ruin mounds. Beat the drum for me in the sanctuary. Make the rounds of the houses of the gods for me."

"Lacerate your eyes for me, lacerate your nose for me. Lacerate your ears for me, in public. In private, lacerate your buttocks for me. Like a pauper, clothe yourself in a single garment and all alone set your foot in the E-kur, the house of Enlil."

"When you have entered the E-kur, the house of Enlil, lament before Enlil: "Father Enlil, don't let anyone kill your daughter in the underworld. Don't let your precious metal be alloyed there with the dirt of the underworld. Don't let your precious lapis lazuli be split there with the mason's stone. Don't let your boxwood be chopped up there with the carpenter's wood. Don't let young lady Inana be killed in the underworld."

"If Enlil does not help you in this matter, go to Urim. In the E-mud-kura at Urim, when you have entered the E-kiš-nu-gal, the house of Nanna, lament before Nanna: "Father Nanna, don't let anyone kill your daughter in the underworld. Don't let your precious metal be alloyed there with the dirt of the underworld. Don't let your precious lapis lazuli be split there with the mason's stone. Don't let your boxwood be chopped up there with the carpenter's wood. Don't let young lady Inana be killed in the underworld."

"And if Nanna does not help you in this matter, go to Eridug. In Eridug, when you have entered the house of Enki, lament before Enki: "Father Enki, don't let anyone kill your daughter in the underworld. Don't let your precious metal be alloyed there with the dirt of the underworld. Don't let your precious lapis lazuli be split there with the mason's stone. Don't let your boxwood be chopped up there with the carpenter's wood. Don't let young lady Inana be killed in the underworld."

"Father Enki, the lord of great wisdom, knows about the life-giving plant and the life-giving water. He is the one who will restore me to life."

Inanna then descends to the netherworld and tells Ninšubur, who follows her:

"Go now, my Ninšubur, and pay attention. Don't neglect the instructions I gave you."

Inanna arrives at the palace Ganzer, pushign on the door of the underworld, shouting:

"Open up, doorman, open up. Open up, Neti, open up. I am all alone and I want to come in."

Neti, the chief doorkeeper of the underworld, asks Inanna who she is and she responds:

"I am Inana going to the east."

Neti asks Inanna:

"If you are Inana going to the east, why have you travelled to the land of no return? How did you set your heart on the road whose traveller never returns?"

Inanna says that she came to observe the libations at the wake of Gugalanna, the Great Bull of Heaven, the deceased husband of Ereškigal, Goddess of the Underworld.

Neti goes to inform Ereškigal, she tells Neti to bolt the gates of the netherworld and open each gate of the Ganzer palace seperately, taking a part of her clothes, representing one of the Divine Powers she took with her, at each gate. Then when Inanna comes into the presence of Ereškigal, she makes her rise from her throne and Inanna sits on her throne instead. The Anuna Gods look upon Inanna with the look of death, spoke to her with speech of anger and Inanna was turned into a corpse that was hung on a hook.

After three days Ninšubura goes the rounds to all the gods, making a lament for Inanna.

She speaks the words Inanna told her to Enlil, but Enlil answers:

"My daughter craved the great heaven and she craved the great below as well. Inana craved the great heaven and she craved the great below as well. The divine powers of the underworld are divine powers which should not be craved, for whoever gets them must remain in the underworld. Who, having got to that place, could then expect to come up again?"

Ninšubur then went to Nanna, but received the same answer.

Ninšubur then goes to Enki, who reponds:

"What has my daughter done? She has me worried. What has Inana done? She has me worried. What has the mistress of all the lands done? She has me worried. What has the hierodule of An done? She has me worried."

He removed dirt from the tip of his fingernail and created the kur-gara. From the dirt from the tip of his other fingernail he created the gala-tura. To the the kur-gara he gave the "life-giving plant". To the gala-tura he gave the "life-giving water".

Enki then tells the Kur-Gara and the Gala-Tura:

"Go and direct your steps to the underworld. Flit past the door like flies. Slip through the door pivots like phantoms. The mother who gave birth, Erečkigal, on account of her children, is lying there. Her holy shoulders are not covered by a linen cloth. Her breasts are not full like a šagan vessel. Her nails are like a pickaxe upon her. The hair on her head is bunched up as if it were leeks."

"When she says "Oh my heart", you are to say "You are troubled, our mistress, oh your heart". When she says "Oh my liver", you are to say "You are troubled, our mistress, oh your liver". (She will then ask:) "Who are you? Speaking to you from my heart to your heart, from my liver to your liver -- if you are gods, let me talk with you; if you are mortals, may a destiny be decreed for you." Make her swear this by heaven and earth."

"They will offer you a riverful of water -- don't accept it. They will offer you a field with its grain -- don't accept it. But say to her: "Give us the corpse hanging on the hook." (She will answer:) "That is the corpse of your queen." Say to her: "Whether it is that of our king, whether it is that of our queen, give it to us." She will give you the corpse hanging on the hook. One of you sprinkle on it the life-giving plant and the other the life-giving water. Thus let Inanna arise."

They do so and Inanna is resurrected, but as she tries to ascend from the netherworld, she is seied by the Anuna Gods, who say:

"Who has ever ascended from the underworld, has ascended unscathed from the underworld? If Inana is to ascend from the underworld, let her provide a substitute for herself."

So "when Inana left the underworld, the one in front of her, though not a minister, held a sceptre in his hand; the one behind her, though not an escort, carried a mace at his hip, while the small demons, like a reed enclosure, and the big demons, like the reeds of a fence, restrained her on all sides."

"Those who accompanied her, those who accompanied Inana, know no food, know no drink, eat no flour offering and drink no libation. They accept no pleasant gifts. They never enjoy the pleasures of the marital embrace, never have any sweet children to kiss. They tear away the wife from a man's embrace. They snatch the son from a man's knee. They make the bride leave the house of her father-in-law."

When Inanna emerges from the netherworld she sees Ninšubur waiting outside. The demons accompanying her wish to seize Ninšubur in her place, but Inanna says:

"All alone she directed her steps to the E-kur, to the house of Enlil, and to Urim, to the house of Nanna, and to Eridug, to the house of Enki. She brought me back to life. How could I turn her over to you? Let us go on. Let us go on to the Sig-kur-saga in Umma."

At Sigkursaga Šara throws himself at Inanna's feet. The demons wish to take Šara in place of Inanna, but she says:

"Šara is my singer, my manicurist and my hairdresser. How could I turn him over to you? Let us go on. Let us go on to the E-muš-kalama in Bad-tibira."

At E-muš-kalama they meet Lulal, and wish to seize him but Inanna says:

"Outstanding Lulal follows me at my right and my left. How could I turn him over to you? Let us go on. Let us go on to the great apple tree in the plain of Kulaba."

They venture towards the great apple tree in the plain of Kulaba. The God Dummuzi, husband of Inanna, is there, unlike Ninšubur, Lulal and Šara he is dressed in a fine garment. The demons seize Dummuzi and Inanna "gives" him to them.

Dummuzi speaks to the sun God Utu, asking his hands and feet to be turned snake hands and snake feet so the demons cannot hold him. Yet the demons seize him.

Inanna is later lamenting the loss of her husband. A fly tells Inanna where she can find her husband, and she rewards the fly, proclaiming "You will live (?) like the sons of the wise."

Inanna then finds her husband, in the protection of his sister Geštinanna. Dummuzi is given to the protection of an old woman named Bilulu, but she gives him over to the demons. Inanna avenges herself on Bilulu, whom she turns into a waterskin, her son G̃irg̃ire who is made into a protective God of the Desert, and his consort Shirru who is decreed to always watch that proper protection rites are performed agains the dangers of the desert. Inanna repents and and then tells her husband that henceforth he shall have to spend half a year in the netherworld each year, becoming Inanna's substitute, while the next half year his place in the Kur will be taken by his sister Geštinanna.


Ninĝišzida's journey to the nether world[]

The myth, dealing with Ninĝišzida's descent to the netherworld at the yearly time of the death of vegetation, begins with the lines

"Arise and get on board, arise, we are about to sail, arise and get on board!" -- Woe, weep for the bright daylight, as the barge is steered away! -- "I am a young man! Let me not be covered against my wishes by a cabin, as if with a blanket, as if with a blanket!"

Lord Ninĝišzida is taken away by a barge, stretching his one hand to Ištaran "of the bright visage", to Alla "masterof the battle-net", and to Lugal-šude. Ninĝišzida's younger sister is crying in lamentation in the boat cabin. Ninĝišzida's older sister removes the cover from the boat cabin, saying:"Let me sail away with you, let me sail away with you, brother, let me sail away with you."

She was lamenting in the boat's bow:" My brother}, let me sail away with you. The gudug priest sits in the cabin at your boat's stern. Let me sail away with you, my brother, let me sail away with you."

The "evil demon" who was among them called out to Ninĝišzida: " Ninĝišzida, look at your sister!" Ninĝišzida tells her: "He sails with me, he sails with me. Why should you sail to the underworld ? Lady, the demon sails with me. Why should you sail to the underworld? The thresher sails with me. Why should you sail to the underworld ? The man who has bound my hands sails with me. Why should you sail? The man who has tied my arms sails with me. Why should you sail?"

Ninĝišzida continued: "The river of the nether world produces no water, no water is drunk from it. Why should you sail? The fields of the nether world produce no grain, no flour is eaten from it. Why should you sail? The sheep of the nether world produce no wool, no cloth is woven from it. Why should you sail? As for me, even if my mother digs as if for a canal, I shall not be able to drink the water meant for me. The waters of springtime will not be poured for me as they are for the tamarisks; I shall not sit in the shade intended for me. The dates I should bear like a date palm will not reveal their beauty for me. I am a field threshed by my demon -- you would scream at it. He has put manacles on my hands -- you would scream at it. He has put a neck-stock on my neck -- you would scream at it."

Ama-šilama, Ninĝišzida's sister said to Ninĝišzida: "The ill-intentioned demon may accept something -- there should be a limit to it for you. My brother, your demon may accept something, there should be a limit to it for you. For him let me …… from my hand the ……, there should be a limit to it for you."

Ama-šilama continues: "You are a beloved [God], there should be a limit to it for you. How they treat you, how they treat you! -- there should be a limit to it for you. My brother, how they treat you, how haughtily they treat you! -- there should be a limit to it for you. "I am hungry, but the bread has slipped away from me!" -- there should be a limit to it for you. "I am thirsty, but the water has slipped away from me!" -- there should be a limit to it for you."

The evil demon who was among them, called out to the man at the boat's bow and to the man at the boat's stern: "Don't let the mooring stake be pulled out, don't let the mooring stake be pulled out, so that she may come on board to her brother, that this lady may come on board the barge."

Ama-šilama went onboard, and a cry approached the heavens and the earth, that great demon "set up an enveloping cry" before him on the river: "Urim, at my cry to the heavens lock your houses, lock your houses, city, lock your houses! Shrine Urim, lock your houses, city, lock your houses! Against your lord who has left the ĝipar, city, lock your houses!"


Ereškigala, the Lady of the Underworld, proclaimed:

"My king will no longer shed tears in his eyes. The drum will [renew] his joy in tears. Come! May the fowler utter a lament for you in his well-stocked house, lord, may he utter a lament for you. How he has been humiliated! May the young fisherman utter a lament for you in his well-stocked house, lord, may he utter a lament for you. How he has been humiliated! May the mother of the dead gudug priest utter a lament for you in her empty ĝipar, utter a lament for you, lord, may she utter a lament for you. How he has been humiliated! May the mother high priestess utter a lament for you who have left the ĝipar for you, now dead, who used to be in your ĝipar, lord, may she utter a lament for you. How he has been humiliated!"

"My king, bathe with water your head that has rolled in the dust. …… in sandals your feet defiled from the defiled place." The king bathed with water his head that had rolled in the dust. In sandals his feet defiled from the defiled place. "Not drawing near to this house, your throne "Sit down". "Lie down"." He ate food in his mouth, he drank choice wine."

The myth ends with the line:

"Great holy one, Ereškigala, praising you is sweet."


Ninurta and the Turtle[]

When Ninurta battles Amar-Anzu for the Tablet of destinies, he strikes the bird creature and make it let loose the Tablet. Ninurta is brought to the Abzu where he is praised for his actions, but he is not happy at losing the tablet, for which he had his own plans. Enki notices this and sends his vizier Isimud to eject Ninurta from the Abzu but Ninurta strikes Isimud.

Enki then fashions a turtle out of Abzu clay and has it fight Ninurta, having it dig a pit and then throwing it and Ninurta in. Enki mocks Ninurta's inability to ascend from the pit, saying:

"Whither has your strength hgone ! Where is your heroship ! You destroyed mountains - why is it that now you cannot ascend ?"

Ninhursag, came to rescue Ninurta, calling Enki "plant eater" and reminding that she saved his life by giving birth to the Healing Gods who saved him when he poisoned himself.


Enki and the World Order[]

"Grandiloquent lord of heaven and earth, self-reliant, Father Enki, engendered by a bull, begotten by a wild bull, cherished by Enlil, the Great Mountain, beloved by holy Anu, king, meš tree planted in the Abzu, rising over all lands; great dragon who stands in Eridu, whose shadow covers heaven and earth, a grove of vines extending over the Land, Enki, lord of plenty of the Anuna gods, Nudimmud, mighty one of the Ekur, strong one of heaven and earth! Your great house is founded in the Abzu, the great mooring-post of heaven and earth. Enki, from whom a single glance is enough to unsettle the heart of the mountains; wherever bison are born, where stags are born, where ibex are born, where wild goats are born, in meadows, in hollows in the heart of the hills, in green unvisited by man, you have fixed your gaze on the heart of the Land as on split reeds."


"Counting the days and putting the months in their houses, so as to complete the years and to submit the completed years to the assembly for a decision, taking decisions to regularise the days: Father Enki, you are the king of the assembled people. You have only to open your mouth for everything to multiply and for plenty to be established. Your branches [are] green with their fruit , [you] do honour to the gods. Good sheep and good lambs do honour to [the gods]. There is oil, there is milk, produced by the sheepfold and cow-pen. The shepherd sweetly sings his rustic song, the cowherd spends the day rocking his churns. Their products would do honour to the late lunches in the gods' great dining hall.


"Your word fills the young man's heart with vigour, so that like a thick-horned bull he butts about in the courtyard. Your word bestows loveliness on the young woman's head, so that the people in their settled cities gaze at her in wonder."


"Enlil, the Great Mountain, has commissioned you to gladden the hearts of lords and rulers and wish them well. Enki, lord of prosperity, lord of wisdom, lord, the beloved of Anu, the ornament of Eridu, who establish commands and decisions, who well understands the decreeing of fates: you close up the days, and make the months enter their houses. You bring down, you have reached their number. You make the people dwell in their dwelling places, you make them follow their herdsman."


""You turn weapons away from their houses, you make the people safe in their dwellings."


"When Father Enki goes forth to the inseminated people, good seed will come forth. When Nudimmud goes forth to the good pregnant ewes, good lambs will be born; when he goes forth to the fecund cows, good calves will be born; whe he goes forth to the good pregnant goats, good kids will be born. If you go forth to the cultivated fields, to the good germinating fields, stockpiles and stacks can be accumulated on the high plain."


"Enki, the king of the Abzu, rejoicing in great splendour, justly praises himself: "My father, the king of heaven and earth, made me famous in heaven and earth. My elder brother, the king of all the lands, gathered up all the divine powers and placed them in my hand. I brought the arts and crafts from the Ekur, the house of Enlil, to my Abzu in Eridu. I am the good semen, begotten by a wild bull, I am the first born of Anu. I am a great storm rising over the great earth, I am the great lord of the Land. I am the principal among all rulers, the father of all the foreign lands. I am the big brother of the gods, I bring prosperity to perfection. I am the seal-keeper of heaven and earth. I am the wisdom and understanding of all the foreign lands. With Anu the king, on Anu's dais, I oversee justice. With Enlil, looking out over the lands, I decree good destinies. He has placed in my hands the decreeing of fates in the place where the sun rises. I am cherished by Nintur. I am named with a good name by Ninḫursaĝ. I am the leader of the Anuna gods. I was born as the firstborn son of holy Anu.""


"After the lord had proclaimed his greatness, after the great prince had eulogised himself, the Anuna gods stood there in prayer and supplication:


""Praise be to Enki, the much-praised lord who controls all the arts and crafts, who takes decisions!""


"In a state of high delight Enki, the king of the Abzu, rejoicing in great splendour, again justly praises himself: "I am the lord, I am one whose word is reliable, I am one who excels in everything.""


""At my command, sheepfolds have been built, cow-pens have been fenced off. When I approach heaven, a rain of abundance rains from heaven. When I approach earth, there is a high carp-flood. When I approach the green meadows, at my word stockpiles and stacks are accumulated. I have built my house, a shrine, in a pure place, and named it with a good name. I have built my Abzu, a shrine, and decreed a good fate for it. By my house the suḫur carp dart among the honey plants, and the eštub carp wave their tails among the small gizi reeds. The small birds chirp in their nests.""


""The lords pay heed to me. I am Enki! They stand before me, praising me. The abgal priests and abrig officials stand before me. The enkum and ninkum officiants organise [celebrations] for me. They purify the river for me, they [decorate] the interior of the shrine for me. In my Abzu, sacred songs and incantations resound for me. My barge 'Crown', the 'Stag of the Abzu', transports me there most delightfully. It glides swiftly for me through the great marshes to wherever I have decided, it is obedient to me. The stroke-callers make the oars pull in perfect unison. They sing for me pleasant songs, creating a cheerful mood on the river. Niĝir-sig, the captain of my barge, holds the golden sceptre for me. I am Enki! He is in command of my boat 'Stag of the Abzu'. I am the lord! I will travel! I am Enki! I will go forth into my Land! I, the lord who determines the fates.""


""I will admire its green cedars. Let the lands of Meluḫa, Magan and Dilmun look upon me, upon Enki. Let the Dilmun boats be loaded with timber. Let the Magan boats be loaded sky-high. Let the magilum boats of Meluḫa transport gold and silver and bring them to Nibru for Enlil, king of all the lands.""


"He presented animals to those who have no city, to those who have no houses, to the Martu nomads.


"The Anuna gods address affectionately the great prince who has travelled in his Land: "Lord who rides upon the great powers, the pure powers, who controls the great powers, the numberless powers, foremost in all the breadth of heaven and earth; who received the supreme powers in Eridu, the holy place, the most esteemed place, Enki, lord of heaven and earth -- praise!""


"All the lords and rulers, the incantation-priests of Eridu and the linen-clad priests of Sumer, perform the purification rites of the Abzu for the great prince who has travelled in his land; for Father Enki they stand guard in the holy place, the most esteemed place. They bring there the tall juniper, the pure plant. They organise the holy [rituals] in the great watercourse of Enki. Skilfully they build the main stairway of Eridu on the Good Quay. They prepare the sacred uzga shrine, where they utter endless prayers."


"For Enki, the suḫurmaš carp dart among the honey plants, again fighting amongst themselves for the great prince. The eštub carp wave their tails among the small gizi reeds."


"The lord, the great ruler of the Abzu, issues instructions on board the 'Stag of the Abzu' -- the great emblem erected in the Abzu, providing protection, its shade extending over the whole land and refreshing the people, the pillar and pole planted in the marsh, rising high over all the foreign lands. The noble captain of the lands, the son of Enlil, holds in his hand the sacred punt-pole, a meš tree ornamented in the Abzu which received the supreme powers in Eridug, the holy place, the most esteemed place. The hero proudly lifts his head towards the Abzu."


"Sirsir, the boatman of the barge, [drives] the boat for the lord. Niĝir-sig, the captain of the barge, holds the holy sceptre for the lord. The fifty laḫama deities of the subterranean waters speak affectionately to him. The stroke-callers, like heavenly gamgam birds."


"The intrepid king, Father Enki [travels] in the Land. Prosperity was made to burgeon in heaven and on earth for the great prince who travels in the Land. Enki decreed its fate:


""Sumer, great mountain, land of heaven and earth, trailing glory, bestowing powers on the people from sunrise to sunset: your powers are superior powers, untouchable, and your heart is complex and inscrutable. Like heaven itself, your just matrix, in which gods too can be born, is beyond reach. Giving birth to kings who put on the good diadem, giving birth to lords who wear the crown on their heads -- your lord, the honoured lord, sits with Anu the king on Anu's dais. Your king, the Great Mountain, Father Enlil, the father of all the lands, has blocked you impenetrably like a cedar tree. The Anuna, the great gods, have taken up dwellings in your midst, and consume their food in your giguna shrines among the unique and exceptional trees. Household Sumer, may your sheepfolds be built and your cattle multiply, may your giguna touch the skies. May your good temples reach up to heaven. May the Anuna determine the destinies in your midst.""


"Then he proceeded to the sanctuary of Urim. Enki, lord of the Abzu, decreed its fate:


""City which possesses all that is fitting, bathed by water! Sturdy bull, altar of abundance that strides across the mountains, rising like the hills, forest of ḫašur cypresses with broad shade, self-confident! May your perfect powers be well-directed. The Great Mountain Enlil has pronounced your name great in heaven and on earth. City whose fate Enki has decreed, sanctuary of Urim, you shall rise high to heaven!""


"Then he proceeded to the land of Meluḫa. Enki, lord of the Abzu, decreed its fate:


""Black land, may your trees be great trees, may your forests be forests of highland meš trees! Chairs made from them will grace royal palaces! May your reeds be great reeds ! Heroes shall [use] them on the battlefield as weapons! May your bulls be great bulls, may they be bulls of the mountains! May their bellowing be the bellowing of wild bulls of the mountains! The great powers of the gods shall be made perfect for you! May the francolins of the mountains wear cornelian beards! May your birds all be peacocks! May their cries grace royal palaces! May all your silver be gold! May all your copper be tin-bronze! Land, may all you possess be plentiful! May your men go forth like bulls against their fellow men!""


"He cleansed and purified the land of Dilmun. He placed Ninsikila in charge of it. He gave [fish] for the fish spawn, ate its fish, bestowed palms on the cultivated land, ate its dates. [To] Elam and Marḫaši, to devour. The king endowed with strength by Enlil destroyed their houses, demolished their walls. He brought their silver and lapis-lazuli, their treasure, to Enlil, king of all the lands, in Nibru."


"Enki presented animals to those who have no city, who have no houses, to the Martu nomads."


"After he had turned his gaze from there, after Father Enki had lifted his eyes across the Euphrates, he stood up full of lust like a rampant bull, lifted his penis, ejaculated and filled the Tigris with flowing water. He was like a wild cow mooing for its young in the wild grass, its scorpion-infested cow-pen. The Tigris [rejoiced] at his side like a rampant bull. By lifting his penis, he brought a bridal gift. The Tigris rejoiced in its heart like a great wild bull, when it was born. It brought water, flowing water indeed: its wine will be sweet. It brought barley, mottled barley indeed: the people will eat it. It filled the Ekur, the house of Enlil, with all sorts of things. Enlil was delighted with Enki, and Nibru was glad. The lord put on the diadem as a sign of lordship, he put on the good crown as a sign of kingship, touching the ground on his left side. Plenty came forth out of the earth for him."


"Enki, the lord of the destinies, Enki, the king of the Abzu, placed in charge of all this him who holds a sceptre in his right hand, him who with glorious mouth submits to verification the devouring force of the Tigris and Euphrates, while prosperity pours forth from the palace like oil -- Enbilulu, the inspector of waterways."


"He called the marshes and gave them the various species of carp, he spoke to the reedbeds and bestowed on them the old and new growths of reeds."


"The lord established a shrine, a holy shrine, whose interior is elaborately constructed. He established a shrine in the sea, a holy shrine, whose interior is elaborately constructed. The shrine, whose interior is a tangled thread, is beyond understanding. The shrine's emplacement is situated by the constellation the Field, the holy upper shrine's emplacement faces towards the Chariot constellation. Its terrifying sea is a rising wave, its splendour is fearsome. The Anuna gods dare not approach it. To refresh their hearts, the palace rejoices. The Anuna stand by with prayers and supplications. They set up a great altar for Enki in the E-enkura, for the lord, the great prince, the pelican of the sea.


"He filled the E-kur, the house of Enlil, with goods of all sorts. Enlil was delighted with Enki, and Nibru was glad. Enki placed in charge of all this, over the wide extent of the sea, her who sets sail in the holy shrine, who induces sexual intercourse, over the enormous high flood of the subterranean waters, the terrifying waves, the inundation of the sea, the mistress of Sirara,-- Nanše."


"He called to the rain of the heavens. He turned the mounds into fields. Enki placed in charge of all this him who rides on the great storms, who attacks with lightning bolts, the holy bar which blocks the entrance to the interior of heaven, the son of Anu, the canal inspector of heaven and earth -- Iškur, the bringer of plenty, the son of Anu."


"He organised ploughs, yokes and teams. The great prince Enki bestowed the horned oxen that follow the tools, he opened up the holy furrows, and made the barley grow on the cultivated fields. Enki placed in charge of them the lord who wears the diadem, the ornament of the high plain, him of the implements, the farmer of Enlil -- Enkimdu, responsible for ditches and dykes."


"The lord called the cultivated fields, and bestowed on them mottled barley. Enki made chickpeas, lentils grow. He heaped up into piles the early, mottled and innuḫa varieties of barley. Enki multiplied the stockpiles and stacks, and with Enlil's help he enhanced the people's prosperity. Enki placed in charge of all this her whose head and body are dappled, whose face is covered in syrup, the mistress who causes sexual intercourse, the power of the Land, the life of the black-headed -- Ezina, the good bread of the whole world."


"The great prince fixed a string to the hoe, and organised brick moulds. Enki placed in charge of them him whose sharp-bladed hoe is a corpse-devouring snake, whose brick mould in place is a tidy stack of hulled grain for the ewes -- Kulla, who [bakes] bricks in the Land."


"He tied down the strings and coordinated them with the foundations, and with the power of the assembly he planned a house and performed the purification rituals. The great prince put down the foundations, and laid the bricks. Enki placed in charge of all this him whose foundations once laid do not sag, whose good houses once built do not collapse, whose vaults reach up into the heart of the heavens like a rainbow -- Mušdamma, Enlil's master builder."


"He raised a holy crown over the upland plain. He fastened a lapis-lazuli beard to the high plain, and made it wear a lapis-lazuli headdress. He made this good place perfect with greenery in abundance. He multiplied the animals of the high plain to an appropriate degree, he multiplied the ibex and wild goats of the pastures, and made them copulate. Enki placed in charge of them the hero who is the crown of the high plain, who is the king of the countryside, the great lion of the high plain, the muscular, the hefty, the burly strength of Enlil -- Šakkan, the king of the hills."


"He built the sheepfolds, carried out their cleaning, made the cow-pens, bestowed on them the best fat and cream, and brought luxury to the gods' dining places. He made the plain, created for greenery, achieve prosperity. Enki placed in charge of all this the king, the good provider of E-ana, the friend of Anu, the beloved son-in-law of the youth Suen, the holy spouse of Inanna the mistress, the lady of the great powers who allows sexual intercourse in the open squares of Kulaba -- Dumuzi-ušumgal-ana, the friend of Anu."


"He filled the E-kur, the house of Enlil, with possessions. Enlil was delighted with Enki and Nibru was glad. He demarcated borders and fixed boundaries. For the Anuna gods, Enki situated dwellings in cities and disposed agricultural land into fields. Enki placed in charge of the whole of heaven and earth the hero, the bull who comes out of the ḫašur forest bellowing truculently, the youth Utu, the bull standing triumphantly, audaciously, majestically, the father of the Great City [the underworld] , the great herald in the east of holy Anu, the judge who searches out verdicts for the gods, with a lapis-lazuli beard, rising from the horizon into the holy heavens -- Utu, the son born by Ningal."


"He picked out the tow from the fibres, and set up the loom. Enki greatly perfected the task of women. Enki placed in charge of them the honour of the palace, the dignity of the king -- Uttu, the conscientious woman, the silent one."


" Then, alone lacking any functions, the great woman of heaven, Inanna, lacking any functions -- Inanna came in to see her father Enki in his house, weeping to him, and making her complaint to him:


""Enlil left it in your hands to confirm the functions of the Anuna, the great gods. Why did you treat me, the woman, in an exceptional manner? I am holy Inanna -- where are my functions?""


""Aruru, Enlil's sister, Nintur, the lady of giving birth, is to get the holy birth-bricks as her prerogative. She is to carry off the lancet for umbilical cords, the special sand and leeks. She is to get the sila-ĝara bowl of translucent lapis lazuli in which to place the afterbirth . She is to carry off the holy consecrated ala vessel. She is to be the midwife of the land! The birthing of kings and lords is to be in her hands.""


""My illustrious sister, holy Ninisina, is to get the jewellery of šuba stones. She is to be the mistress of heaven. She is to stand beside Anu and speak to him whenever she desires.""


""My illustrious sister, holy Ninmug, is to get the golden chisel and the silver burin. She is to carry off her big flint antasura blade. She is to be the metal-worker of the Land. The fitting of the good diadem when a king is born and the crowning with the crown when a lord is born are to be in her hands.""


""My illustrious sister, holy Nisaba, is to get the measuring-reed. The lapis-lazuli measuring tape is to hang over her arm. She is to proclaim all the great powers. She is to demarcate boundaries and mark borders. She is to be the scribe of the Land. The planning of the gods' meals is to be in her hands."


""Nanše, the august lady, who rests her feet on the holy pelican, is to be the fisheries inspector of the sea. She is to be responsible for accepting delectable fish and delicious birds from there to go to Nibru for her father Enlil.""


""But why did you treat me, the woman, in an exceptional manner? I am holy Inanna -- where are my functions?""


"Enki answered his daughter, holy Inanna : "How have I disparaged you? Goddess, how have I disparaged you? How can I enhance you? Maiden Inanna, how have I disparaged you? How can I enhance you? I made you speak as a woman with pleasant voice. I made you go forth. I made you exchange its right side and its left side. I clothed you in garments of women's power. I put women's speech in your mouth. I placed in your hands the spindle and the hairpin. I [gave] to you women's adornment. I settled on you the staff and the crook, with the shepherd's stick beside them.""


""Maiden Inanna, how have I disparaged you? How can I enhance you? Amongst the ominous ocurrences in the hurly-burly of battle, I shall make you speak vivifying words; and in its midst, although you are not an arabu bird, a bird of ill omen, I shall make you speak ill-omened words also. I made you tangle straight threads; maiden Inanna, I made you straighten out tangled threads. I made you put on garments, I made you dress in linen. I made you pick out the tow from the fibres, I made you spin with the spindle. I made you colour tufted cloth with coloured threads."


""Inanna, you heap up human heads like piles of dust, you sow heads like seed. Inanna, you destroy what should not be destroyed; you create what should not be created. You remove the cover from the šem drum of lamentations, Maiden Inanna, while shutting up the tigi and adab instruments in their homes. You never grow weary with admirers looking at you. Maiden Inanna, you know nothing of tying the ropes on deep wells.""


""But now, the heart has overflowed, the Land is restored; Enlil's heart has overflowed, the Land is restored. In his overflowing heart of mankind, a lapis-lazuli headdress is your prerogative."

"Praise be to Father Enki."


Pabilsaĝ's journey to Nibru[]

"The wild bull with brindled thighs, whose house is noble! My king, the wild bull with brindled thighs, whose house is noble! Pabilsaĝ, the wild bull with brindled thighs, whose house is noble! His house, the house of Larak, is noble, his house is noble! His city, a mighty city, is abundant, and his house is noble! The warrior's house is the house of Larak; Lord Pabilsaĝ's city is a mighty city. His birthplace was the shrine Nibru. The place where he drank good milk was the house. From the place, the pure place, Isin, the unique house. The place which the bull embraces. Like a scorpion rising up from among the thorns, he is a fearsome scorpion; like a wolf rising up from his lair, he is likely to growl; like a lion rising up in the pathway."


"At that time, he wished to dig in the meadows; the lord wished to dig in the meadows. Lord Pabilsaĝ wished to dig in the meadows; in all the meadows of Isin, my king wished to dig. So then my king set off for Nibru."


"And as the warrior Pabilsaĝ set off in Enlil's direction, as he he set off, now he turned in front of that house in Isin. And then my lady in Isin came out. At the spacious house, the house of Isin, she [brushed] her hair, then she [spread] the hair in curls. Her headdress was loosened. She addressed Pabilsaĝ joyfully: "Warrior Pabilsaĝ, borne to Nintur! You who are travelling from Larak to that house in Isin, say to your father, "May she be my spouse!" Fix your sights on it, fix your sights on it, and may you be its lord! The house of Isin. May you, Pabilsaĝ, be its lord, and may I be its lady!" "


"And now, under that very sun and on that day, so it really happened. [The fish] waved their tails in the Kir-sig watercourse."


"[Pabilsaĝ] established the house, the most righteous. The good bull-calf, the ruler established the house. Its flax was flax. Its grain was grain. Its [food] was good for eating."


"Joyfully his son married a wife; joyfully Lord Pabilsaĝ married Ninisina. She [gave] him the digging implement for the Kir-sig watercourse."


"Enlil stood beside the river and spoke to it. He stood beside the Kir-sig watercourse and [said] : "River, may your outlet be for him. May you establish the house here. [Pabilsaĝ] , the most righteous, great wild bull.""


Girra and Elamatum[]

[Christopher Walker]


Elamatum, "the woman of Elam", caused a great famine. Girra, the God of Fire, went to battle against Elammatum and defeated her. Girra brought his body to the Assembly of the Gods before Enlil. Girra kissed Enlil's feet and then Enlil decreed Girra's destiny:


"Go, be you the light of mankind. By your own power you became visible. Let Girra be your name.""


""Until you eat, may your brother gods not eat. Until you drink may your brother gods not drink.""


""Until you show them light, may the vigil of your brother gods not be illuminated."


""Walk with Asalluhi the exorcist of the gods, and let your name be present in the house of god and man.""


""Also let Elamatum, whom you killed rise and in the midst of the heavens let her stand, let her rise, let them put in ther festival.""

""Among the gods, your brothers, may you have no rival. Among the Gods may you have no rival.""


Enlil and Namzitarra[]

[J.S.Cooper]


Namzitarra recognises Enlil disguised as a raven. He hails Enlil:

"You are Enlil himself!—[then decree my] fate!"

Enlil then asks:

"What is your name?"

Namzitarra replies:

"Namz]itarra is my name."

Enlil says:

"Your fate will be allotted to you like your name,

"You will have silver,

"You will have lapis lazuli gems,

"You will have cattle,

"You will have sheep.

To which Namzitarra replies:

"Where will I have taken

"Your silver, your lapis lazuli, your sheep?

"The days of mankind are declining,

"Day after day they are diminishing,

"Month after month they are diminishing,

"Year after year—they are diminishing,

"120 years – that is the limit of mankind’s life, its term.

"From that day till now,

"as long as mankind has existed.

"So I am going home,

"Do not stop me, do not stop me, I am in a hurry."


After which Enlil decrees that Namzitarra's successors shall receive a prebend at his temple.


Erra and Ishum[]

[B. Foster]


" O king of all inhabited lands, creator of the world,

"O Hendursagga (1), first born of Enlil.

" Holder of the sublime scepter, herdsman of the black-headed folk, shepherd of mankind,

"O Ishum, zealous slaughterer, whose hands are suited to brandish fierce weapons,

"And to make his sharp spear flash, Erra, warrior of the gods, was resteless in his dwelling,

"His heart urged him to do battle!"

"Says he to his weapons.

""Smear yourselves with deadly venom!""

"To the Seven, warriors unrivalled,"

""Let your weapons be girded!""

"He even says to you:

""You are the torch, they will see your light""

""You are the vanguard,"

"You are the stanchion, zealous slaughterer!"

"So up, Erra, from laying waste the land"

""How cheerful your mood will be and joyful your heart!""

"Erra´s limbs are sluggish, like those of a mortal lacking sleep,"

"He says to himself, 'Shall I get up or go to sleep?'"

"He says to his weapons, 'Stay in the corners!'

"To the Seven, warriors unrivalled, 'Go back to your dwellings!'

"Until you rouse him, he will sleep in his bedrooms,

"He will dally with Mami, his mate".


"O Engidudu, who patrols at night, ever guiding the noble,

"Who ever guides young men and women in safety, making light as day,

"The Seven, warriors unrivalled, their divine nature is different,

"Their origins are strange, they are terrifying,

"Whoever sees them is numbed with fear."

"Their breath of life is death,

"People are too frightened to appproach it!"

"Yet Ishum is the door, bolted before them.

"When Anu, the king of the gods, sowed his seed in the earth,

"She bore him seven gods, he called them the Seven."

"They stood before him, that he ordain their destinies,

"He summoned the first to give his instructions,

""Wherever you go and spread terror, have no equal.""

"He said to the second, "Burn like fire, scorch like flame"."

"He commanded the third, "Look like a lion, let him who sees you be paralysed with fear"."

"He said to the fourth,"Let a mountain collapse when you present your fierce arms"."


"He said to the fifth, "Blast like the wind, scan the circumference of the earth"."

"He said to the sixth."Go out everywhere like the deluge and spare no one"."

"The seveth he charged with viperous venom," Slay whatever lives"."

"After Anu had ordained destinies for all of the Seven,

"He gave those very ones to Erra, warrior of the gods, saying:

"Let them go beside you, when the clamor of human habitations becomes noisome to you,

""And you resolve to wreak destruction,

""To massacre the black-headed folk and fell the livestock,

""Let these be your fierce weaponry, let them go beside you"."


"These are the ones who are in a fury, holding their weapons aloft,

"They are saying to Erra, "Up, do your duty!"

""Why have you been sitting in the city like a feeble old man,

""Why sitting at home like a helpless child?""

""Shall we eat woman food, like non-combatants?""

""Have we turned timorous and trembling, as if we can´t fight?""

""Going to the field for the young and vigorous is like to a very feast,

""But the noble who stays in the city can never eat enough.""

""His people will hold him inlow esteem, he will command no respect,

""How could he threaten a campaigner?""

""However well developed is the strength of the city dweller,

""How could he possibly best a campaigner?""

""However toothsome city bread, it holds nothing to the campfire loaf,

""However sweet fine beer, it holds nothing to water from a skin,

""The terraced palace holds nothing to the wayside sleeping spot!""

""Be off to the field, warrior Erra, make your weapons clatter,

""Make loud your battle cry that all around they quake,

""Let the Igigi-gods hear and extol your name,

""Let the Anunna-gods hear and flinch at the mention of your,

""Let all the gods hear and bend for your yoke,

""Let sovereigns hear and fall prostrate before you,

""Let countries hear and bring you their tribute,

""Let the lowly hear and perish of their own accord,

""Let the mighty hear and his strength diminish,

""Let lofty mountains hear and their peaks crumble,

""Let the surging sea hear and convulse, wiping out her increase!""

""Let the stalk be yanked from the tough thicket,

""Let reeds of the impenetrable morass be shorn off,

""Let men turn cowards and their clamor subside,

""Let beasts tremble and return to clay,

""Let the gods your ancestors see and praise your valor!""

""Warrior Erra, why do you neglect the field for the city?""

""The very beats and cretures hold us in contempt!""

""O warrior Erra, we will tell you, thought that we say be offensive to you!""

""Ere the whole land outgrows us,

""You must surely hear our words!

""Do a kindly deed for the gods of hell, who delight in deadly stillness,

""The Anunna-gods cannot fall asleep for the clamor of humankind,

""Beasts are overrunning the meadows, life of the land,

""The farmer sobs bitterly for his field,

""Lion and wolf are felling the livestock,

""The shepherd, who cannot sleep day and night for the sake of his flocks, is calling upon you,

""We too, who know the mountain passes,have forgotten how to go,

""Cobwebs are spun over our field gear,

""Our fine bow resists and is too strong for us,

""The tip of our sharp arrow is bent out of true,

""Our blade is corroded for want of a slaughter!""

"The warrior Erra heard them,

"What the Seven said pleased him like finest oil.

"He made ready to speak and said to Ishum:

""Why, having heard, did you sit by silent?""

""Lead the way, let me begin my campaign!""

""[Command] the Seven, warriors without rival,

""Make my fierce weapons (the Seven) march by my side,

"But you be the vanguard and rear guard"."

"When Ishum heard what he said, he felt pity and said ot the warrior Erra:

""O Lord Erra, why have you plotted evil against the gods?"

""To lay waste the lands and decimate the people"."

"Erra made ready to speak and said to Ishum, his vanguard:

""Keep quiet, Ishum, listen to what I say, as concerns the people of the inhabited world, whom you would spare."


""O vanguard of the gods, wise Ishum, whose counsel is always for the best,

""I am the wild bull in heaven, I am the lion on earth,

""I am king in the land, I am the fiercest among the gods,

""I am warrior among the Igigi-gods, mighty one among the Anunna-gods!""

""I am the smitter of wild beasts, battering ram against the mountain,

""I am the blaze in the reed thicket, the broad blade against the rushes,

""I am banner for the march, I blast like the wind, I thunder like the storm,

""Like the sun, I scan the circumference of the world,

""I am the wild ram striding forth in the steppe,

""I invade the range and take up my dwelling in the fold,

""All the gods are afraid of a fight, so the black-headed folk are contemptuous!""

""As for me, since they did not fear my name, and I have disregarded Marduk´s command, so he may act according to his wishes

""I will make Marduk angry, stir him from his dwelling, and lay waste the people!""

"The warrior Erra set out for Babylon, city of the king of the gods."

"He entered Esagila, palace of heaven and earth and stood before him."

"He made ready to speak, saying to the king of the gods:

""Why has your precious image, symbol of your lordship, lost its brilliance?""

""Your lordly diadem, which made the inner sanctum shine like the outside tower, why is it dimmed?""

"The king of the gods made ready to speak, saying to Erra, these words,

""O warrior Erra, concerning that deed you said you would do,

""Once, long ago indeed I grew angry, indeed I left my dwelling and caused the deluge!""

""When I left my dwelling, the regulation of heaven and earth disintegrated:

""The shaking of heaven meant: the positions of the heavenly bodies changed, nor did I restore them,

""The quaking of netherworld meant: the yield of the furrow diminished, being thereafter difficult to exploit.""

""The regulations of heaven and earth disintegrating meant: underground water diminished, high water receded. When I looked again, it was struggle to get enough.""

""Productivity of living offspring declined, nor did I renew it,

""Such that were I a plowman, I could hold all seed in my hand.""

""I built another house and settled therein

""As to my precious image, which had been struck by the deluge that its appearance was sullied,

""I commanded fire to make my features shine and cleanse my apparel.""

"""When it had shined my precious image and completed the task,

""I donned my lordly diadem and returned.""

""Haughty were my features, terrifying my glare!""

""The survivors of the deluge saw what was done,

""Shall I raise my weapon and destroy the rest?""

""I sent those craftsmen down to the depths, I ordered them not to come up,

""I removed the wood and gemstone and showed no one where,

""Now then, warrior Erra, as concerns that deed you said you would do,

""Where is the wood, flesh of the gods, suitable for the lord of the universe,

""The sacred tree, splendid stripling, perfect for lordship,

""Whose roots thrust down an hundred leagues through the waters of the vast ocean to the depths of hell,

""Whose crown brushed Anu´s heaven on high?""

""Where is the clear gemstone that I reserved ?""

""Where is Ninildum, great carpenter of my supreme divinity,

""Wielder of the glittering hatchet, who knows that tool,

""Who makes it shine like the day and puts it in subjection at my feet?""

""Where is Kunig-banda, fashioner of god and man, whose hands are sacred?""

""Where is Ninagal, wielder of the upper and lower millstone

""Who grinds up hard copper like hide and who forges tools?""

""Where are the choice stones, created by the vast sea, to ornament my diadem?""

""Where are the seven sages of the depths, those sacred fish, who, like Ea their lord, are perfect in sublime wisdom, the ones who cleansed my person?""

"The warrior Erra heard him"

"He made ready to speak, saying to noble Marduk,

""The Clear gemstone [from] its place will I bring up.""

"When Marduk heard this, he made ready to speak, saying to the warrior Erra:

""When I rise from my dwelling, the regulation of heaven and earth will disintegrate,

""The waters will rise and sweep over the land,

""Bright day will turn to darkness, whirlwind will rise and the stars of heaven will be [in disarray]""

""Ill winds will blow and the eyesight of living creatures will be darkened,

""Demons will riase up and seize [the land],

""They will [slaughter] the unarmed one who confronts them!

""The gods of hell will rise up and smite down living creatures,

""Who will keep them at bay till I gird on my weaponry once more?""

"When Erra heard this, he made himself ready to speak, saying to noble Marduk:

""O noble Marduk, while you enter the house, fire cleanses your apparel and you return to your palace,

""For that time I will govern and keep strong the regulation of heaven and earth,

""I will go up to heaven and issue instructions to the Igigi gods,

""I will go down to the depths and keep the Anunna gods in order.""

"""I will despatch the wild demons to the netherworld,

""I will brandish my fierce weaponry against them,

""I will truss the wings of the ill wind like a bird´s.""

""At that house you shall enter, O noble Marduk,

""I will station Anu and Enlil to the right and left, like bulls.""

""Noble Marduk heard him, the words which Erra spoke pleased him.""

""The dazzling stars of heaven in his time are dimmed.

"The ant, does it not rise ?""

""Among the beasts, the image of their star is the fox,

""Endowed with strength, a raging lion,

"Enlil is the father [of the Gods]".

Ininna replied in the assembly of the gods,

Her words to Anu and Dagan,

""Keep quiet, all of you, go into your chambers,

""Cover your lips, do not smell the incense,

""Do not debate noble Marduk's word, do not plead,

""Until the days are drawn to a close, the appointed time passed,

""The word Marduk speaks is like a mountain, he does not change it."

""Ishtar went, they entered the [abode of Erra]

""She pled with Erra, but he would not agree,

""Ishum made ready to speak, saying these words to Ishtar,

""Erra is angry and will heed no one,

""Let him come to rest in the mountains and I [shall take] the seed of the people which you spoke about to us.""

"The sublime son of Enlil will not go on campaign without Ishum the vanguard before him"."


"He [Erra] was sitting in the E-meslam, taking up his dwelling,

"He thought to himself what has been done,

"His heart being stung, it could give him no answer,

"But he asked it what it would have him do."

""Lead the way, let me begin the campaign!""

""The days are drawn to a close, the appointed time has passed,

""I give the command and despoil the sun of his protective radiance,

""By night I muffle the face of the moon,

""I say to the thunderstorm, 'Hold back your young bulls!'

""'Brush aside the clouds, cut off snow and rain!'""

""I will make Marduk and Ea mindful!""

""He who waxed great in the days of plenty, they bury him on a day of drought,

""He who came by water, they take him back on a dusty road,

""I say to the king of the gods, 'Take your place in Esagila,

""'They must do what you commanded, they must carry out your order.""

""'The black-headed folk cry out to you, but do not accept their entreaties!'

""I obliterate the land and reckon it for ruins,

""I lay wate cities and turn them into open spaces,

""I wreck mountains and fell their wildlife,

""I convulse the sea and destroy its increase,

""I bring the stillness of death upon swamp and thicket, burning like fire,

""I fell humankind, I leave no living creatues,

""Not one do I retain, nor any for seed to [populate] the land,

""I spare no livestock nor any living creatures,

""I dispatch the soldier from one city against another,

""Neither son nor father has a care for the other's well-being,

""Mother plots evil against daughter with a leer,

""I let yokels into the abodes of gods, where harm must not approach,

""I settle the miscreant in the nobleman's dwelling,

""I let outlandish beasts into the shrines,

""I block access to any city where they appear,

""I send down beasts to the highlands,

""Wherever they set foot, they bring the stillness of death to the thoroughfares,

""I cause beasts of the steppe not to stay in the steppe, but to traverse the city street,

""I make omens unfavorable, I turn holy places into foraging grounds,

""I let the demon "Upholder of Evil" into the dwellings of the gods, where no evil should go,

""I devastate the king's palace and turn it into a ruin, and rob them of happiness, "As [I burn] orchards like fire

""I let evil enter.""

""I confiscate their households and cut short their lives,

""I assassinate the righteous man who intercedes,

""I set the wicked cutthroat in the highest rank.""

""I estrange people's hearts so father listens not to son,

""And daughter cavils spitefully to mother.""

""I make their utterances evil, they forget their gods,

""They speak gross blasphemy to their goddesses,

""I stir up the robber and so cut off travel absolutely,

""People rifle one another's belongings in the heart of the city.""

""Lion and wolf fell the livestock.""

""I aggravate [the woman] and she cuts off birth-giving,

""I deprive the nurse of the wail of toddler and infant,

""I banish the work song of harvest home from the fields,

""Shepherd and herdsman forget their field shelters.""

""I cut the clothes from the bodies of men, the young man I parade naked through the city street,

""The young man without clothes I send down to hell,

""The ordinary fellow has not so much as a sheep to offer up for his life,

""For the nobleman's divination lambs are few and precious.""

""The patient yearns for a bit of roast to offer for his recovery,

""It does him no good, so he gets up and walks till he dies.""

""I incapacitate the nobleman's mount.""


Ishum Speaks to Erra

""You homed their weaponry upon the people under special protection, sacred to Anu and Dagan,

""You made their blood course like ditchwater in the city streets,

""You opened their arteries and the watercourses bear their blood away, ""Enlil cried, 'Woe!' his heart was hardened,

""He [went away] from his dwelling,

""An irreversible curse rose to his lips,

""He swore that he would not drink from the watercourses,

""He was revolted by their blood, and would not enter Ekur,""

"Erra said these words to Ishum his vanguard,

""The Seven, warriors unrivalled,

""For all of them,

""O my vanguard,

""Who can speak,

""Lead the way, let me begin the campaign!""

""Muster the Seven, warriors unrivalled,

""Make them fierce weaponry, go at my side,

""And do you be my vanguard and rear guard.""

"When Ishum heard this speech of his,

"He felt pity and said to himself,

""Alas for my people, victim of Erra's fury,

""Whom the warrior Nergal overwhelmed like the storm of battle against the demons,

""As if to kill that conquered god, his arms lose no tension,

""As if to snare wicked Anzu, his net is spread!""

"Ishum made ready to speak, saying to warrior Erra these words.

""Why have you plotted evil against god and man?""

""And why have you remorselessly plotted evil against the black-headed folk?""

"Erra made ready to speak, saying to Ishum his vanguard these words,

""You who know the reasoning of the Igigi gods, the counsel of the Anunna gods,

""Would you give guidance to the black-headed folk, and try to make them understand?""

""Why are you, indeed, talking like a know-nothing?""

""You are advising me as if you knew not Marduk's command!""

""The king of the gods has risen from his dwelling!""

""What of all lands has endured?""

""He has removed his lordly diadem:

""King and prince forget their duties.""

""He has undone his girdle:

""The bond of god and man is undone, impossible to tighten it again.

""Fierce fire made his precious image glow like the day and heightened his protective splendor,

""His right hand grasped the mace, his enormous weapon,

""Noble Marduk's glare is terrifying!""

""As for me, what you said to me,

""O vanguard of the gods, wise Ishum, whose commands are sound,

"Why, just now, did you [utter] such speech?""

""Marduk's command is not satisfactory to you?""

"Ishum made ready to speak, saying to the warrior Erra:

""O warrior Erra,

""Now then, what you said, warrior Erra,

""One stood forth and you [released the] seven,

""You killed seven and did not let go a single one,

""Take away the livestock,

""O Erra, when you strike with your weapons,

""Mountains totter, the sea convulses,

""Such a flash of your stanchion, they look east, as if to see the sun rise!

"Ishum made ready to speak, saying to the warrior Erra,

""O warrior Erra, you hold the leadrope of heven,

""You are master of all the earth, lord to the land!"

""You convulse the sea, obliterate mountains,

""You rule over man and herd beasts.""

""The primeval sanctuaries are in your hands,

""You control Shuanna and command Esagila,

""You have gathered to yourself all authority, the gods revere you,

""The Igigi gods stand in awe of you, the Anunna gods are in dread of you,

""When you set forth counsel, even Anu heeds you,

""Even Enlil agrees with you, aside from you, is there opposition?""

""Except for you, is there battle?""

""The armor of strife is yours alone!""

""But you have said to yourself, 'They hold me in contempt'".

""O warrior Erra, you are the one who feared not noble Marduk's name!""

""You have undone Dimkurkurra, the bond of the world

""You changed your divine nature and made yourself a mortal

""You girded on your weaponry and entered Babylon.""

""Inside Babylon, you spoke like a rabble-rouser, as if to take over the city,

""The citizenry of Babylon, like reeds in a thicket, had no one in charge so they rallied around you

""He who knew nothing of weapons - his sword was drawn,

""He who knew nothing of archery - his bow was taut,

""He who knew nothing of fighting - set to the fray,

""He who knew nothing of wings - flew off like a bird.""

""The cripple could surpass the fleet of foot, the weakling could overpower the strong.""

""They give voice to gross insolence against the governor who provides for their holy places,

""With their own hands they blockaded the gate of Babylon their lifeline,

""They have torched the santuaries of Babylon like marauders of the land,

""You, the vanguard, took their lead!

""You aimed your shaft at the innermost wall,

""'Woe! My heart!' it exclaims,

""You flung the seat of Muhra, its gatekeeper, into the blood of young men and girls,

""The inhabitants of Babylon themselves - they the bird, you the decoy -

""You snared in a net, caught and killed them, warrior Erra!""

""You quit the city and have gone out to the outskirts,

""You took a lion's face and have entered the palace.""

""When the troops saw you, they girded on their weapons,

""The heart of the governor, avenger of Babylon, turned to fury,

""He issued orders to his army to plunder, as if plundering enemies,

""He incited the commander to atrocities,

""' You, my man, for that city I am sending you to,

""' Fear no god, respect no man!""

""' Do young and old alike to death!""

""' Spare no one, not even the baby sucking milk!

""' You shall plunder the accumulated wealth of Babylon!'""

""The royal troops drew up and have invaded the city,

""With flashing shafts and outstretched blades,

""You homed their weapons upon those under special protection, sacred to Anu and Dagan,

""You made their blood course like ditchwater in the city streets,

""You opened their arteries and let the watercourses hear their bood away.

""When the great lord Marduk saw that, he cried 'Woe!' and his heart was hardened,

""An irreversible curse rose to his lips,

""He swore that he would not drink from the watercourses,

""He was revolted by their blood and would not enter Esagila,

""'Alas for Babylon, whose crown I fashioned luxuriant as a palm's, but which the wind has scorched,

""'Alas for Babylon, that I had laden with seed, like an evergreen, but of whose delights I could not have what I hoped for!""

""'Alas for Babylon, that I tended like a thriving orchard, but whose fruit I could not taste!""

""'Alas for Babylon, that I suspended like a gemstone on the neck of the sky!""

""'Alas for Babylon, that I clasped in my hand like the tablet of destinies, not handling it over to anyone else!'""

""And this too has noble Marduk said,

""'From former days,

""'Let one quit the wharf: he shall cross at two cubit's depht of water on foot,

""'Let one go down sixty fathoms in a well, not one man shall keep himself alive on the water,

""'Let them still have to punt the fishing boat 100 leagues out in the open sea!'""

""As for Sippar, the primeval city, through which the lord of the world did not allow the deluge to pass, became it was precious to him,

""You destroyed her ramparts against the will of Shamash and threw down her fortifications.""

""As for Uruk, the dwelling of Anu and Ishtar, the city of courtesans, harlots, and prostitutes for the cult,

""Whom Ishtar deprived of husbands and reckoned as her own,

""There Sutean nomads, men and women, bandy war whoops!""

""They turned out the actors and singers of Eanna,

""Whose manhood Ishtar changed to womanhood to strike awe into the people,

""The wielders of daggers and razors, vintner's shears and flint knives,

""Who take part in abominable acts for the entertainment of Ishtar,

""A haughty, remorseless governor you placed over them,

""He harassed them and interfered with their rites.""

""Ishtar was angered, she flew into rage against Uruk,

""She stirred up the enemy and swept clean the country, like granules on the water's face,

""The dweller of Parsa had no respite from lamenting the destroyed Eugal-santuary,

""The enemy you roused has no desire to stop.""

Ishtaran responded thus,

""' You turned the city Der into a wasteland,

""' You fractured her populace like reeds,

""' You extinguished their clamor like the dying hiss of foram on the water's face!""

""'And as for me, you did not spare me, but have me over to the Sutean nomads""

""'For the sake of my city Der, I will judge no disputed truth, nor make any ruling for the land.""

""'I will give no guidance nor aid in understanding,

""'Men forsook truth and took up violence,

""'They abandoned justice and were plotting wickedness,

""'Against but one country I raised up seven winds,

""'He who did not die in battle will die in an epidemic,

""'He who did not die in the epidemic, the enemy will plunder him,

""'He whom the enemy has not plundered, the bandit will murder him,

""'He whom the bandid did not murder, the king's weapon will vanquish him,

""'He whom the king's weapon did not vanquish, the prince will slay him,

""'He whom the prince did not slay, a thunderstorm will wash him away,

""'He whom the thunderstorm did not wash away, the sun will parch him,

""'He who has gone out into the world, the wind will sweep him away,

""'He who has gone into his home, a demon will strike him,

""'He who has gone up to a high place, will perish of thirst,

""'He who has gone down to a low place, will perish in the waters

""'You have obliterated high and low place alike.""

""'The man in charge of the city says to his mother,

"" If only I had stuck in your womb the day you bore me,

"" If only our lives had come to an end,

"" If only we had died together,

"" For you gave me a city whose walls are destroyed!

"" Its people are the beasts, their god is who hunts them down.

"" He it is whose net is right-meshed: those engaged cannot slip through but die a violent death""

""'He who begot a son, saying.

""This is my son, when I have reared him, he will requite my pains.""

""'I will put that son to death, his father must bury him,

""'Afterwards I will put that father to death, but he will have none to bury him.""

""'He who built a house saying

""This is my house, I built it for myself, I shall spend my leisure in it,

""On the day fate claims me, I shall fall asleep inside"."

""'I will put him to death and wreck his home,

""'Afterwards though it be wreackage, I will give it to another'.""

""O warrior Erra, you have put the righteous man to death,

""You have put the unrighteous man to death,

""He who sinned against you, you put him to death,

"" He who did not sin against you, you put him to death,

""The high priest, assiduous with divine offerings, you put to death,

""The functionary who served the king you put to death,

""The old man on the doorstep you put to death,

""The young girls in the bedrooms you put to death,

L"Even then you found no appeasement whatsoever!

""Even then when you told yourself,'They hold me in contempt!'""

""Even then you said to yourself, O warrior Erra,

""'I will strike down the mighty, I will terrorize the weak,

""'I will kill the commander, I will scatter the troops,

""'I will wreck the temple's sacred chamber, the rampart's battlement, the pride of the city I will destroy!""

""'I will tear out the mooring pole so the ship difts away,

""'I will smash the rudder so she cannot reach the shore,

""'I will pluck out the mast, I will rip out the rigging.""

""'I will make breasts go dry so babies cannot thrive,

""'I will block up springs so that even little channels can bring no life-sustaining water,

""'I will make hell shake and heaven tremble,

""'I will make the planets shed their splendor, I will wrench out the stars from the sky,

""'I will hack the tree's roots, so its branches cannot burgeon,

""'I will wreck the wall's foundation so its top tumbles,

""'I will approach the dwelling of the king of the gods, that no direction be forthcoming.""

"The warrior Erra heard him."

"The speech that Ishum made pleased him like finest oil."

"Thus spoke the warrior Erra.

""The Sealand, the Sealand, Subartu Subartu, Assyrian, Assyrian, "Elamite, Elamite, Kassite Kassite, "Sutean, Sutean, Gutian Gutian, "Lullubaean, Lullubaean, land land, city city, "House house, man man, brother brother must not spare one another, let them kill each other!""

""Then, afterwards, let the Akkadian arise to slay them all, to rule them, everyone."

The warrior Erra said these words to Ishum, his vanguard:

""Go, Ishum, the matter you spoke of, do as you wish"."

"Ishum set out for the mountain Hehe, the homeland of the Suteans.""

"The Seven, warriors unrivalled, fell in behind him.

"When the warriors reached the mountain Hehe, he raised his hand, he destroyed the mountain,

"He recknoned the mountain Hehe as level ground, he cut away the trunks of the cedar forest,

"The thicket looked as if the deluge had passed over,

"He laid waste cities and turned them into open spaces,

"He obliterated mountains and slew their wild life,

"He convulsed the sea and destroyed its increase

"He brought the stillness of death upon swamp and thicket, burning like fire,

"He cursed the wildlife and returned to clay."


"After Erra was calmed and took up his own abode,

"All the gods were gazing at his face,

"All the Igigi-gods and the Anunna-gods stood in awe, Erra made ready to speak, saying to all the gods:

""Quiet, all of you learn what I have to say!

""No doubt I intended evil in the bygone lapse,

""I was angry and wanted to lay waste the people.""

""Like a hireling, I took the lead ram from the flock,

""Like one who did not plant an orchard, I was quick to cut it down,

""Like a scorcher of the earth, I slew indiscriminately good and evil.""

""One would not snatch a carcass from the jaws of a ravaging lion,

""So too no one can reason where one is in a frenzy.""

""Were it not for Ishum, my vanguard, what might have happened?""

""Where would your provider be, where your high priest?""

""Where your food offering? You would smell no incense"."

"Ishum made ready to speak, saying to the warrior Erra these words:

""Quiet, warrior, hear what I have to say,

""No doubt this is true, now, calm down, let us serve you!""

""At a time you are angry, where is he who can face you?""

"When Erra heard this, his face beamed, like radiant daylight his features glowed.

"He entered E-meslam and took up his abode,

"He called Ishum to tell him the sign, to give instructions concerning the scattered peoples of Akkad,

""Let the people of the country, who had dwindled, become numerous again,

""Let short and tall alike traverse its paths,

""Let weak Akkadians fell mighty Suteans,

""Let one drive off seven like sheep.""


""You shall make his cities into ruins and his highlands into open ground.""

""You shall take massive booty from them, and put it in Shuanna,

""You shall reconcile the angry gods with their own abodes,

""You shall make gods of livestock, and grain descend once more to the land.

""You shall make mountain deliver its yield, sea its produce,

""You shall make the ruined fields deliver produce

""Let the governors of all cities haul their massive tribute into Shuanna,

""Let the ruined temples lift their heads like the rays of the sun,

""Let the governors of all cities make the provider for Esagila and Babylon their lord.""

"Praise to the great lord Nergal and warrior Ishum for years without number!""


Naram Sin and the Umman-Manda[]

[Also called "The Cuthean Legend of Naram Sin]

[O.R.Gurney]


The King Naram Sin invokes an oracle from the great gods


"I questioned the great gods

"Ishtar, Baba, Zababa, Anunitum Nabu and Šamaš the hero

"I summoned the seers and instruced them

"I "touched" seven and again seven lambs."

The oracle is unfavourable, the seers proclaiming curses upon the King and his descendants.


The King does not heed the oracle, and the Gods create the horde of the Uman Manda:

"Warriors with bodies of cave-birds, a race with ravens' faces

"The Great Gods created them, and in the land whose city the gods created

"Tiamar suckled them

" Belet-ili blessed them in the womb

"In the midst of the Mountain they grew up, came to mandhood and aquired their stature."

"Seven Kings, brothers, glorious and noble

"Their troops nu mbered 360,000

"Their father was Anubanini the King, thier mother the Queen, Melili was her name.

"Their eldest brother, their leader, his name was Memandakh.

"Their second brother, his name was Midudu.

"Their third brother, his name was Kukupish.

"Their fourth brother, his name was Tartadada.

"Their fifth brother, his name was Baldakhdakh.

"Their sixth brother, his name was Ahudanadikh.

"Their seventh brother, his name was Harshakidu.

"They occupied the shining mountains,

"The officer caught them but they smote their thighs.

"At the beginning their incursion they approached Burushkhandar.

"The whole district of Burushkhandar was plundered.

"The town of Puhulu was plundered.

"The town of Puranshu was plundered.

"The Umman-manda, their camp was the dwelling of Enlil.

"And into the midst of Subartu they all came down.

"They devastated the Seas and inaded Gutium.

"They devastated Gutium and invaded the land of Elam.

"They devastated the land of Elam and arrived at the interior.

"They killed the people of the crossings, they hurled themselves at Dilmun, Magan, Meluhha and all the countries in the midst of the sea they slew.

"Seventeen kings with 90 000 troops had come to their assistance.

"I summoned the officer and instructed him:

""Take a lance, touch them with the luddu, prick them with the lance.""

""If blood comes out they are men like us, if blood does not come out, they are evil spirits, spectres, ghosts and fiends, creatures of Enlil.""

"The officer brought back his report:

""I touched them with the luddu.""

""I pricked them with the lance and blood came out."

""I summoned the seers and instructed them.

""I "touched" seven and again seven lambs.

""I set out the holy reed-altars.

"I questioned the great gods, Ishtar, Baba, Zabab, Anunitum, Nabu and Šamaš the hero.

"The "lock" of the great gods did not give permission for my going."

"Thus I spoke in my heart - these were my words:

"What lion ever observed oracles ?

"WHat wld ever consulted a dream-pristess ?

"I will go like a robber according to my own inclination, and I will take for myself the luddu-weapons of iron."

"When the first year arrived, I sent out 120 000 troops, but none of them returned alive.

"When the second year arrived, i sent out 90 000 troops, but none of them returned alive.

"When the third year arrived, I sent out 60 700 troops, but none of them returned alive.

"I was bewildered, confused, sunk in gloom, sorrowful, exhausted.

"This I spoke in my heart - these were my words:

""What have I to show for my reign ?

""I am a king who brings no prosperity to his country, a shepherd who brings no prosperity to his people.

""How am I to proceed and keep myself out of trouble ?"

"A horror of people, night, death, pestilence, drought, terror, frost, hunger, famine and misfortune of every kind came down upon them.

"Above in the city there was a flood. Below in the meadows they experienced a flood.

"Ea, lord of the deep, opened his mouth.

Ea speaks in favour of Naram-Sin and so

"When the New Year Festival of the fourth year arrived, at the earnest entreaty of Ea

"I sacrificed the holy offerings of the New Year Festival, I obtained the holy sacrificial omens. I summoned the seers and instructed them.

"I "touched" seven and again seven lambs.

"I set out the holy reed-altars.

"I questioned the Geat Gods, Ishtar, Baba, Zababa, Anunitum, Nabu and Šamaš the hero.

Naram-Sin prevails over the Umman-Manda.

"Among them 12 men flew away from me.

"I pursued after them, I hurried, I hastened, I overtook those men, I brought those men back.

"Thus I spoke in my heart, these were my words:

""Without an inspection of the entrails I will not apply a punishment.""

"I "touched" a lamb on account of them.

The "lock" of the great gods ordained mercy for them.

The bright Venus from heaven thus declared:

"To Naram-Sin, son of Sargon I speak:

""Desist ! Destroy not the sons of perdition !

""In days to come Enlil will summon them for evil, they are waiting for the angry heart of nlil.""


""The city of those warriors will be massacred, its dwellings will be brunt and besieged, the city will pour out their blood, the earth will diminish its store, the date-palm its yield, the city of those warriors will die.

""City will fight with city, house with house, father with father, brother with brother, young man with young man, friend with companion, hey will not speak the truth one with another.


"The people will have been taught untruths and strange things.

"That enemy city will be killed, that city - an enemy city will capture it.

"The great gods brought them to a rckoning, my hand did not bring them to their death.

"Whosoever thou art, whether fgovernor or prince, or any one else, whom the God shall call to rule over a kingdom, I have made for thee an ivory tablet and inscribed a tele for thee, and in Cuthat, in the E-meslam, in the shrine of Nergal I have deposited it for thee.

"Read this document and listen to the words thereof.

"Be not bewildered, be not confused, be not afraid, do not tremble, establish thyself firmly, enjoy thyself in the bossom of thy wife, strengthen thy walls, fill thy trenches with water, thy chests, thy corn, thy money, thy goods and thy possessions bring into thy stronghold, tie up thy weapons and put them away in corners, husband thy valour and take heed for thy person.

"Though he wander through thy land, go not out to him, though he slay thy cattle, go not nigh him.

"Answer them: "Here am I, my lord.", respond to their wickedness with kindness, to kindness with gifts and exchanges, but do not go forth before them.

"Let wise scribes read aloud thy stele.

"Thou who hast read my stele and kept out of trouble, thou who hast blessed me, may a future one bless thee.


Nergal and Ereškigal[]

[1]

"When the Gods Prepared a Banquet Anu made his voice heard and spoke, he addressed his words to Kakka, "Kakka, I shall send you to Kurnugi. You must speak thus to Ereshkigal, Saying, 'It is impossible for you to come up. In your year you cannot come up to see us And it is impossible for us to go down. In our months we cannot go down to see you. Let your messenger come And take from the table, let him accept a present for you. I shall give something to him to present to you.'""


"Kakka went down the long stairway of heaven. When he reached the gate of Ereshkigal, he said, "Gatekeeper, open the gate to me!""


""Kakka, come in, and may the gate bless you." He let the god Kakka in through the first gate, He let the god Kakka in through the second gate, He let the god Kakka in through the third gate, He let the god Kakka in through the fourth gate, He let the god Kakka in through the fifth gate, He let the god Kakka in through the sixth gate, He let the god Kakka in through the seventh gate."


"He entered into her spacious courtyard, He knelt down and kissed the ground in front of her. He straightened up, stood and addressed her, "Anu your father sent me To say, 'It is impossible for you to go up; In your year you cannot go up to see us, And it is impossible for us to go down; In our month we cannot go down to see you. Let your messenger come And take from the table, let him accept a present for you. I shall give something to him to present to you,"'"


"Ereshkigal made her voice heard and spake, she addressed her words to Kakka. "O messenger of Anu our father, you who have come to us, May peace be with Anu, Ellil, and Ea, the great gods. May peace be with Nammu and Nash, the pure Goddesses. May peace be with the husband of the Lady of Heaven. May peace be with Ninurta, champion in the land.""


"Kakka made his voice heard and spake, he addressed his words to Ereshkigal, "Peace is indeed with Anu, Ellil, and Ea, the great gods. Peace is indeed with Nammu and Nash the pure. Peace is indeed with the husband of the Lady of Heaven. Peace is indeed with Ninurta, champion in the land." Kakka made his voice heard and spake, he addressed his words to Ereshkigal, "[All] may be well with you.""


"Ereshkigal made her voice heard and spake, she addressed her words to her vizier Namtar, "O Namtar my vizier, I shall send youto the heaven of our father Anu. Namtar, go up the long stairway of heaven. Take from the table and accept a present for me. Whatever Anu gives to you, you must present to me.""


"Ea addressed Nergal: "[Namtar] The gods are kneeling together before him. The great gods, the lords of destiny. For it is he who controls the rites, controls the rites of [ ] The gods who dwell within Erkalla. Why do you not kneel before him? I keep winking at you, But you pretend no to realize.""


Nergal addressed Ea, wishing to visit Ereshkigal) "I will rise to my feet."'


"Then Ea made his voice heard and spake, he addressed his words to Nergal. "My son, you shall go on the journey you want to make,... grasp a sword in your hand. Go down to the forest of mesu trees. Cut down mesu trees, tiaru trees, and juniper! Break off kanaktu trees and simberru trees.""


"When Nergal heard this, he took an axe up in his hand, Drew the sword from his belt, Went down to the forest of mesu trees, Cut down mesu trees, tiaru trees, and juniper, Broke off kanaktu trees and simberru trees, He made a throne for far-sighted Ea. He painted it with [silver paste] as a substitute for silver, Painted it with yellow paste and red paste as a substitute for gold, Painted it with blue glaze as a substitute for lapis lazuli. The work was finished, the chair complete."


"Then he (Ea) called out and laid down instructions for him, "My son, about the journey which you want to make: from the moment you arrive, Follow whatever instructions I give you. From the moment they bring a chair to you, Do not go to it, do not sit upon it. When the baker brings you bread, do not go to it, do not eat the bread. When the butcher brings you meat, do not go to it, do not eat the meat. When the brewer brings you beer, do not go to it, do not drink the beer. When they bring you a foot bath, do not go to it, do not wash your feet. When she (Ereshkigal) has been to the bath And dressed herself in a fine robe, Alowing your to glimpse her body... You must not do that which men and women do.""

In the Amarna version Ea sends 14 observers along with Nergal, 3 whose names are lost and Muttabriqu, Šarabda, Rabisa, Tirid, Idiptu, Bennu, Sidana, Miqit, Bel-uri, Umma and Liba.


"Nergal set his face toward Kurnugi, To the dark house, dwelling of Erkalla's god, To the house which those who enter cannot leave, On the road where travelling is one way only, To the house where those who enter are deprived of light, Where dust is their food, clay thier bread. They are clothed, like birds, with feathers. They see no light, the dwell in darkness. They moan like doves."


"The gatekeeper opened his mouth and addressed his words to Nergal, "I must take back a report about the god standing at the door." The gatekeeper entered an addressed his words to Ereshkigal, "May lady, a [messenger] has come to see us. [Namtar] will identify him.""


"Ereshkigal made her voice heard and spake to Namtar, "[Identify him]""


"Namtar replied "Let me identify him, Let me [observe] him at the outer gate. Let me bring back to my lord a description of him." Namtar went and looked at Erra in the shadow of the door. Namtar's face went as livid as cut tamarisk. His lips grew dark as the rim of a kuninu vessle. Namtar went and addressed his lady, "My lady, when you sent me to your father, When I entered the courtyard of Anu All the gods were kneeling, humbled before him, All the gods of the land were kneeling humbled before him. The gods rose to their feet in my presence. Now 'they' (Nergal) have gone down to Kurnugi.""


"Ereshkigal made her voice heard and spake, she addressed her words to Namtar, "My dear Namtar, you should not seek Ellil power, Nor should you you desire to do heroic deeds. What, come up and sit on the throne of the royal dais? You, perform the judgments of the broad Earth? Should I go up to the heaven of Anu my father? Should I eat the bread of the Anunnaki? Should I drink the water of the Anunnaki? Go and bring the god into my presence!""


"Namtar went and let in 'the Gods', Erra. He let Nergal in through the first, the gate of Nedu. He let Nergal in through the second, the gate of Enkishar. He let Nergal in through the third, the gate of Endashurimma. He let Nergal in through the fourth, the gate of Enuralla. He let Nergal in through the fifth, the gate of Endukuga. He let Nergal in through the sixth, the gate of Endushuba. He let Nergal in through the seventh, the gate of Ennugigi."


"He came into the broad courtyard, And he knelt down, kissed the ground in front of her. He straightened up, stood and sddressed her, "Anu your father sent me to see you, Saying, 'Sit down on that throne, Judge the cases of the great gods, The great gods who live within Erkalla!'""


"As soon as they brought him to a throne He did not go to it, and did not sit on it. When the baker brought him bread, he did not go to it, and did not eat the bread. When the butcher brought him mean, he did not go to it, and did not eat the meat. When the brewer brought him beer, he did not go to it, and did not drink the beer. When they brought him a footbath, he did not go to it, and did not wash his feet. When she went to the bath, And dressed herself in a fine robe, And allowed him to catch a glimpse of her body, He reisisted his heart's desire to do what men and women do."


"She went to the bath And dressed in a fine robe, and allowed him to catch a glimpse of her body. He gave in to his heart's desire to do what men and women do. The two embraced each other And went passionately to bed. They lay there, queen Ereshkigal and Erra, for a first day and a second day. They lay there, queen Ereshkigal and Erra, for a third day and a fourth day. They lay there, queen Ereshkigal and Erra, for a fifth day and a sixth day."


"When the seventh day arrived, Nergal, Took away after him, "let me go, Do not make tremble, Let me go now, and I will return to Kurnugi later."


"Her mouth turned dark with rage."


""Nergal went and made his voice heard and spake. He addressed his speech to the gatekeeper, "Ereshkigal your lady sent me, Saying, 'I am sending you to the heaven of Anu our father' So let me be allowed out!""


"Nergal came up along the long stairway of heaven. When he arrived at the gate of Anu, Ellil, and ea, Anu, Ellil, and Ea saw him and said, "The son of Ishtar has come back to us, She (Ereshkigal) will search for him and [kill him]. Ea his father must sprinkle him with spring water, and bareheaded, Blinking and cringing let him sit in the assembly of the gods.""


"Ereshkigal [went] To the bath Her body, She called out : "The chair, Sprinkle the room with the water of [life] Sprinkle the room with the water of [life] Sprinkle the room with the water of [life] The [throne] of the two daughters of Lamashtu and Enmesharra, Sprinkle with the waters of [life]. The messenger of Any our father who came to see us Shall eat our bread and drink our water.""


"Namtar made his voice heard and spake, Addressed his words to Ereshkigal his lady, "The messenger of Anu our father who came to see us- Before daylight he disappeared!""


"Ereshkigal cried aloud, grievously, Fell from the throne to the ground, Then straightened up from the ground. Her tears flowed down her cheeks. "Erre, the lover of my delight- I did not have enough delight with him before he left! Erra, the love of my delight- I did not have enough delight with him before he left.""


"Namtar made his voice heard and spake, addressed his words to Ereshkigal, "Send me to Anu your father, and let me arrest the god! Let me take him to you, that he may kiss you again!""


"Ereshkigal made her voice heard and spake, Addressed her words to Namtar her vizier, "Go, Namtar, you must speak to Anu, Ellil, and Ea! Set your face towards the gate of Anu, Ellil, and Ea, To say, 'Ever since I was a child and a daughter, I have not known the playing of other girls, I have not known the romping of children. That god whome you sent to me and who has impregnated me- let him sleep with me again! Send that god to us, and let him spend the night with me as my lover! I am unclean, and I am not pure enough to perform the judging of the great gods, The great gods who dwell within Erkalla. If you do not send that god to me According to the rites of Erkalla and the great Earth I shall raise up the dead, and they will eat the living. I shall make the dead outnumber the living!'""


"Namtar came up the long stairway of heaven. When he arrived at the gate of Anu, Ellil, and Ea, Anu, Ellil, and Ea saw him and said, "What have you come for, Namtar?""


""Your daughter sent me, To say, 'Ever since I was a child and a daughter, I have not known the playing of other girls, I have not known the romping of children. That god whome you sent to me and who has impregnated me- let him sleep with me again!"


"Send that god to us, and let him spend the night with me as my lover! I am unclean, and I am not pure enough to perform the judging of the great gods, The great gods who dwell within Erkalla. If you do not send that god to me According to the rites of Erkalla and the great Earth I shall raise up the dead, and they will eat the living. I shall make the dead outnumber the living!'""


"Ea made his voice heard and spake, addressed his words to Namtar, "Enter, Namtar, the court of Anu, Search out your wrongdoer and bring him!""


"When he entered the court of Anu, All the gods were kneeling humbly before him, All the gods of the land were kneeling humbled before him. He went straight up to one, but did not recognize that god, Went straight up to a second and a third, but did not recognize that god either."


"Namtar went, and addressed his words to his lady, "My lady, about your sending me up to the heaven of Anu your father: May lady, there was only one god who sat bearheaded, blinking, and cringing at the assembly of the gods.""


""Go, seize that god and bring him to me! Ea his father sprinkled him with spring water, And he is sitting in the assembly of all the gods bearheaded, blinking, and cringing.""


"Namtar came up the long stairway of heaven. When he reached the gate of Anu, Ellil, and Ea, Anu, Ellil, and Ea saw him and said, ""What have you come for, Namtar?""


"Your daughter sent me, To say, 'Seize that god and bring him to me.'"


""Then enter, Namtar, the courtyard of Anu, and search out your wrongdoer and take him.""


"He went straight up to one god, but did not recognize him, Went straight up to a second and third, but did not recognize him either."

Then [ ] made his voice heard and spake, addressed his words to Ea, "Let Namtar, the messenger who has come to us, Drink our water, wash, and anoint himself.""


"Namtar made his voice heard and spake, addressed his words to Erra, "Erra, [behold] All the rites of the great Underworld [ ] When you go from [the Netherowlrd] You shall carry the chair [of Ereškigal] [The Doorman ] Do not grapple with him lest he bind your chest.""


"Erra took to heart the speech of Namtar. He oiled his strap and slung his bow. Nergal went down the long stairway of heaven. When he arrived at the gate of Ereshkigal he said, "Gatekeeper, open !"


"He struck down Nedu, the doorman of the first gate, and did not let him grapple with him. He struck down the second doorman, and did not let him grapple with him. He struck down the third doorman, and did not let him grapple with him. He struck down the fourth doorman, and did not let him grapple with him. He struck down the fifth doorman, and did not let him grapple with him. He struck down the sixth doorman, and did not let him grapple with him. He struck down the seventh doorman, and did not let him grapple with him. He entered her wide courtyard, And went up to her and laughed. He seized her by her hairdo, And pulled her from the throne. He seized her by her tresses.


"The two embraced each other And went passionately to bed. They lay there, queen Ereshkigal and Erra, for a first day and a second day. They lay there, queen Ereshkigal and Erra, for a third day. They lay there, queen Ereshkigal and Erra, for a fourth day. They lay there, queen Ereshkigal and Erra, for a fifth day. They lay there, queen Ereshkigal and Erra, for a sixth day."


"When the seventh day arrived, Anu made his voice heard and spoke, Addressed his words to Kakka, his vizier, ""Kakka, I shall send you to Kurnugi, To the home of Ereshkigal who dwells within Erkalla, To say, "That god, whom I sent you, Forever, Those above Those below.""


Enki and Ninmah[]

[2]

"In those days, in the days when heaven and earth were created; in those nights, in the nights when heaven and earth were created; in those years, in the years when the fates were determined; when the Anuna gods were born; when the goddesses were taken in marriage; when the goddesses were distributed in heaven and earth; when the goddesses became pregnant (they) gave birth; when the gods were obliged [to provide] their food, [the] for their meals; the senior gods oversaw the work, while the minor gods were bearing the toil. The gods were digging the canals and piling up the silt in Harali. The gods, dredging the clay, began complaining about this life."


"At that time, the one of great wisdom, the creator of all the senior gods, Enki lay on his bed, not waking up from his sleep, in the deep engur, in the flowing water, the place the inside of which no other god knows. The gods said, weeping: "He is the cause of the lamenting!" Namma, the primeval mother who gave birth to the senior gods, took the tears of the gods to the one who lay sleeping, to the one who did not wake up from his bed, to her son: "Are you really lying there asleep, and not awake? The gods, your creatures, are smashing their [fists]. My son, wake up from your bed! Please apply the skill deriving from your wisdom and create a substitute for the gods so that they can be freed from their toil!""


"At the word of his mother Namma, Enki rose up from his bed. In Hal-an-kug, his room for pondering, he slapped his thigh in annoyance. The wise and intelligent one, the prudent, [possessor] of skills, the fashioner of the design of everything brought to life birth-goddesses. Enki reached out his arm over them and turned his attention to them. And after Enki, the fashioner of designs by himself, had pondered the matter, he said to his mother Namma: "My mother, the creature you planned will really come into existence. Impose on him the work of carrying baskets. You should knead clay from the top of the abzu; the birth-goddesses will nip off the clay and you shall bring the form into existence. Let Ninmah act as your assistant; and let Ninimma, Cu-zi-ana, Ninmada, Ninbarag, Ninmug and Ninguna stand by as you give birth. My mother, after you have decreed his fate, let Ninmah impose on him the work of carrying baskets.""


"Enki brought joy to their heart. He set a feast for his mother Namma and for Ninmah. All the princely birth-goddesses ate delicate reed and bread. An, Enlil, and the lord Nudimmud roasted holy kids. All the senior gods praised him: "O lord of wide understanding, who is as wise as you? Enki, the great lord, who can equal your actions? Like a corporeal father, you are the one who has the me of deciding destinies, in fact you are the me.""


"Enki and Ninmah drank beer, their hearts became elated, and then Ninmah said to Enki: "Man's body can be either good or bad and whether I make a fate good or bad depends on my will.""


"Enki answered Ninmah: "I will counterbalance whatever fate -- good or bad -- you happen to decide." Ninmah took clay from the top of the abzu in her hand and she fashioned from it first a man who could not bend his outstretched weak hands. Enki looked at the man who could not bend his outstretched weak hands, and decreed his fate: he appointed him as a servant of the king."


"Second, she fashioned one who turned back the light, a man with constantly opened eyes. Enki looked at the one who turned back the light, the man with constantly opened eyes (?), and decreed his fate allotting to it the musical arts, making him as the chief [musician] in the king's presence."


"Third, she fashioned one with both feet broken, one with paralysed feet. Enki looked at the one with both feet broken, the one with paralysed feet and [appointed] him for the work of [servant] and the silversmith."


"Fourth, she fashioned one who could not hold back his urine. Enki looked at the one who could not hold back his urine and bathed him in enchanted water and drove out the namtar demon from his body."


"Fifth, she fashioned a woman who could not give birth. Enki looked at the woman who could not give birth, and decreed her fate: he made her belong to the queen's household."


"Sixth, she fashioned one with neither penis nor vagina on its body. Enki looked at the one with neither penis nor vagina on its body and give it the name "Nibru eunuch", and decreed as its fate to stand before the king."


"Ninmah threw the pinched-off clay from her hand on the ground and a great silence fell. The great lord Enki said to Ninmah: "I have decreed the fates of your creatures and given them their daily bread. Come, now I will fashion somebody for you, and you must decree the fate of the newborn one!""


"Enki devised a shape with head, and mouth in its middle, and said to Ninmah: "Pour ejaculated semen into a woman's womb, and the woman will give birth to the semen of her womb." Ninmah stood by for the newborn, and the woman brought forth [a child] in the midst, In return, this was Umul: its head was afflicted, its eyes were afflicted, its neck was afflicted. It could hardly breathe, its ribs were shaky, its lungs were afflicted, its heart was afflicted, its bowels were afflicted. With its hand and its lolling head it could not not put bread into its mouth; its spine and head were dislocated. The weak hips and the shaky feet could not carry (?) it on the field -- Enki fashioned it in this way."


"Enki said to Ninmah: "For your creatures I have decreed a fate, I have given them their daily bread. Now, you should decree a fate for my creature, give him his daily bread too." Ninmah looked at Umul and turned to him. She went nearer to Umul asked him questions but he could not speak. She offered him bread to eat but he could not reach out for it. He could not lie on [the ground]. Standing up he could not sit down, could not lie down, he could not [build] a house, he could not eat bread. Ninmah answered Enki: "The man you have fashioned is neither alive nor dead. He cannot support himself.""


"Enki answered Ninmah: "I decreed a fate for the first man with the weak hands, I gave him bread. I decreed a fate for the man who turned back the light, I gave him bread. I decreed a fate for the man with broken, paralysed feet, I gave him bread. I decreed a fate for the man who could not hold back his urine, I gave him bread. I decreed a fate for the woman who could not give birth, I gave her bread. I decreed the fate for the one with neither penis nor vagina on its body, I gave it bread."


[Ninmah answered] "Look, you do not dwell in heaven, you do not dwell on earth, you do not come out to look at the Land. Where you do not dwell but where my house is built, your words cannot be heard. Where you do not live but where my city is built, I myself am silenced. My city is ruined, my house is destroyed, my child has been taken captive. I am a fugitive who has had to leave the E-kur, even I myself could not escape from your hand."


"Enki replied to Ninmah: "Who could change the words that left your mouth? Remove Umul from your lap. Ninmah, may your work be [perfect] you [make] for me what is imperfect; who can oppose this ? The man whom I shaped, let him pray! Today let my penis be praised, may your wisdom be confirmed (?)! May the enkum and ninkum proclaim your glory. My sister, the heroic strength, The song, the writing (?) .The gods who heard [may] let Umul build my house.""


"Ninmah could not rival the great lord Enki. Father Enki, your praise is sweet!"


Enmešarra's Defeat[]

[W.G.Lambert, Babylonian Creation Myths pp. 281-298.]

Following Enmešarra's rebellion


"When Nergal heard this

"He strengthened his bands

"As he proceeded to the prison.

"Quickly he approached and drew near to the prison.

"He opened the gate of the prison, summoning them,

"He saw them and inspected every one.

"The Seized Gods saw him,

"All of them as one

"Were besides themselves.

"Nergal stood, shouting to them,

"Addressing a word to Enmešarra, the Splendour,

" "Marduk himself has commanded that you should not live,

"And your seven sons

"He will quickly bring to a terrible doom.""


"When Enmešarra heard this

"He cried "Alas" and his heart burnt.

"He opened his mouth and spoke a word,

" "Bēl is terrible that I, a god, should not live;

"His judgements are terrible that my fledglings should not live.""


"Nergal opened his mouth

"Addressing a word to Enmešarra, the Splendour,

"From the beginning,

"From the very beginning,

"This has been your answer, Enmešarra."


"When Nergal heard this

"Quickly he came nigh, he drew near to them.

"As he was watching them all

"He made Enmešarra set out first,

"And his seven sons afterwards.

"Enmešarra went in front,

"His seven sons were marching behind him.

"With Nergal as their escort

"They quickly entered the presence of Marduk.

"Marduk suddenly raised his head,

"He raised his head to look at them.

"With terrible anger he roared at them,

"Marduk opened his mouth

"Addressing a word to Enmešarra, the Splendour,


""Thus you thought in your heart,

"'I will beget/swallow the [powers] of Marduk.'

"You are the offspring of an evil [god]

"And your sons perform the task of battle.""


"Exalted Marduk lifted up his weapons,

"He cut off the heads of the sons of Enmešarra

"And drew representations of them on the wall.

"Their father Enmešarra he bound with his hands,

"And all his splendour he set on Šamaš.

"He drew a representation of him on his dwelling.


"[Marduk] addressed them [the gods]

"Anu, Enlil and Ninurta.

"He summoned Nabû to give him the command,

""The rule of the land of Ninurta

"Quickly take from his power.

"Proceed, bull, to Borsippa.""

"Nergal took the power of Erra,

"Marduk the power of Enlil.

"Marduk, Nabû and Nergal

"Took the lordship of Anu equally.

"Marduk took the power of the Spear-star.

"[Nabû] took the power of Ninurta.

"[Nergal] took the power of Erra,

"Quickly he proceeded and took up his residence."


"He ascended and sat in the heavens,

"He took up residence in the abode of Anu magnificently.

"Bēl took Babylon,

"Nabû took Borsippa,

"Nergal took Cuthah,

"Zababa took Kish,

"Šamaš took Sippar,

"Sîn took Ur,

"Adad took Bīt Karkara,

"Enlil took Nippur,

"Uraš took Dilbat,

"Erimabinutuku took Isin.

"All the gods got land.

"A voice proclaimed from heaven,

""Uruk and Nippur are burnt and defeated,

"Their foundations are uprooted and thrown into the water.

"The gate-keepers of the temple within them .

"Their rites are forgotten to days .

"Their regular offerings do not take place .

"Their regulations are cast aside.

"The people within [them . .


"The Fish-goat [uttered]

"Praise speech,

""Marduk, most exalted [of] the great gods,

"Who has no equal among the gods his fathers,

"Lord of the heavens [and] nether world, light of the world regions,

"Who resides in Esagil, lord of Babylon, Marduk the exalted,

"Your writing was fixed in former time,

"The utterance of your mouth cannot be changed,

"I, the Fish-goat, speak forth your bravery."

"Thus far, the series is completed.

"Total, these eight tablets written above.

"When the regulations were completed

"And Marduk had taken the rule,

"A voice proclaimed from heaven,

"" [Great] Bull, lord of the lands,

"He has been called 'King of all peoples.'

"To consolidate the universe to distant days

"He has grasped the sceptre and mace in his hand."


"All the gods, the gods .

"Of Borsippa, Cuthah and Kish,

"And the gods of all the cult centres,

"Come to Babylon

"To take the hand of the great lord, Marduk,

"And they go with him to the Akītu-house. The king

"Offers a libation before them,

"He recites a prayer. Anu and Enlil

"From Uruk and Nippur to Babylon

"To take the hand of Bēl, and

"Come

"They go in procession with him to Esiskur.

"With them all the great gods

"Come to Babylon.

"All the gods who go with Bēl

"To Esiskur are like a king

"Whose army cannot be annihilated.

"The Spear-star is Marduk;

"Ninurta is Nabû;

"Bēl, Nabû and Nergal

"Took [the lordship] of Anu equally."

Festivals[]

The Festival of the Heavenly Boat[]

The festival is celebrated twice a year, in the seventh and eleventh month. It is to mark the dissapearance and reappearance of the Star Venus. The Godesses Inanna and Nanaya enjoy a prominent position during the festival.


The Ešeš Festival[]

During the Ešeš festival, past Kings are glorified by performances of Adab songs, while clear bear is served "endlessly like water" in front of Enlil and Ninlil.


The Festival of Ištar of Babylon[]

On the third day of Simanu a Kurgarru priest goes to the Eturkalamma temple and recites a prayer to Šamaš.

In the morning of the ninth day a Kurgarru priest goes to Nanaya's Temple of meurur and throws fruit at a wall, beyond which lides the cella of Nanaya.

That afternoon fruit is thrown at the cult rooms in the Temple of Ištar of Babylon.

On the 15th Simanu an assinnu priest takes a brick and places it in the House of Lament (Bit spititte) followed by several ceremonies and the recitation of songs.

On the 16th Simanu a similar rite then takes place at the Equlu cultic centre, and then the assinnu goes tot he Uraš gate to recite further songs.


The Haru Festival of Nabu[]

The Haru Festival of Nabu at Babylon takes place on the 6th of Nisannu, where a young, unblemished bull is sacrificed to Nabu.


The Festival of Ištar of Uruk[]

[Oracc]

The kurgarrû cultic performer from the Reš temple, Šagepada, Aškaʾitu, Galgamunasumu, Palil, Uṣur-amassu, 2 divine standards and 3 divine Aramaeans, the Kilili and Bariritu demons from the Elila, 4 lion-men from the temple of Lammaedin, the Marat-Eana and Lammasiga arise and go down to the Kisalšaba court.

Ši-labat, Igibarluti, Kabaluša, Ada, Esapar, Ninhenuna, Enmeurana and Šešantur, Belet-ayyaki of Udannu, Šarrat-šame and Sadarnuna, Ninimma, Šarrat-parakki, Mišaru and Išartu arise from their seats and, as the Sun appears, all the gods take up position in front of Ištar. The king performs the installation of the enu-priest. He puts on his pure garments.

Šarrahitu goes and prostrates herself. Šarrahitu arises. The gold carrying pole for the interior is given to Ištar.

He presents the meal and the quickly-cooked roast meat to Ištar. He presents the meal and the quickly-cooked roast meat to Nanaya and Beltu-ša-Reš.

He passes on to as many gods as (are) in the forecourt.

He passes on to the goddesses who (are) in the forecourt.

He pours [to] Nanaya and Beltu-ša-Reš.

Ninigizibara [does] take the hands of Ištar, and the mašmaššu-priests, the kalû-priests and the musicians bow down. Ištar sits on the seat in the area between the curtains which (is) at the gate of the cella.

All the gods in the forecourt take up position in front of her. He pours (from) a gold libation vessel and raises the water for the hands. He strews on top of the place for presenting offerings and sets out a merdītu-offering, an ox and a ram, in front of her. He places the heart of the ox and the head of the ram on top of the place for presenting offerings, and he turns upside down over the heart a gold malītu-vessel (full) of maṣhatu-flour. He pours the libation vessel (full) of wine. He raises the water for the hands towards Ištar and sprinkles the king (and) the people. The sceptre [of kingship] stands beside the Dais of Destinies.

The king [holds] the gold libation vessel before Ištar. [He does] take the hands of Ištar, and Nanaya and Beltu-ša-Reš.

Ištar goes and [sits] on the Dais of Destinies.

Next the 2 divine standards, the 3 divine Aramaeans, Kabaluša, Eda and Esapar...

Next the mighty woman of the Reš temple, Uṣur-amassu...

Next Papsukkal, Nusku, Usmu and Messagunug...

The musicians, the kalû-priests and the mašmaššu-priests....

Up to the chariot of Anu one temple-enterer who is wearing a girdle on her breast and in the space between the carrying-pole of Ištar. Next Nanaya and Beltu-ša-Reš.

Next the throne of Anu with a backrest, the Marat-Uruk and the Marat-Eana.

Next Ninsigarana, Ninigizibara, Abetura and Šagepada.

Next Ninmeurur and Ninsun. Next Belet-ayyaki of Udannu.

Šarrat-šame, Kanisura and Šarrat-parakki. Next Annunitu, Ninimma, Sadarnuna, Šešantur (and) Enmeurana.

the gods go in front of her and behind her according to their rank.

He approaches the processional boat, for the chariot (made) of cedar. He goes down with her, and he goes down [takes] the sceptre of kingship, and he goes down with her.

As soon as Ištar goes up on the causeway, all the gods and the chariots take up position in front of her.

He places the [reins] in the hands of the king and moors the boat. Usmu, take the hands of the sceptre of kingship and of Ištar and she enters into the forecourt of the temple of the akītu-festival and sits on the great dais in the forecourt of the temple of the akītu-festival. The sceptre of kingship stands at her side.

All the (other) gods enter and stand in front of her in the forecourt of the temple of the akītu-festival. Linen curtains surround them.

The kurgarrû (and) the assinnu cultic performers who are wearing the garments of Narudu circle around them as before from left to right. He raises the water for the hands towards Ištar and he sprinkles the king and the people.

He pours (from) the gold libation vessel and Usmu and the king take the hands of Ištar and she enters and sits in her cella.

The sceptre of kingship stands at her side. Beltu-ša-Reš enters and in the cella of Ištar to the left.

The throne of Anu with a backrest and Nanaya enter and sit in their cella. All the (other) gods and the chariots enter and sit in their seats in the forecourt. The mašmaššu-priest who raises the kappu-bowl to Ištar and all the gods repeatedly pours water. The bronze kettledrum stands on a base.

The bronze kettledrum arises .

The gold is set up in front of Ištar. The silver offering table [is set up] in front of all the deities.

He fills the gold censer in front of Ištar

He fills the gold [libation vessel] in front of Nanaya and Beltu-ša-Reš.

Hymns[]

There are several types of hymns and songs dedicated to deities. Balags are repetitive hymns, while the Širnamšub is an incantation song and an Eršahuga/Eršemma is a lament.


The Great Hymn to Šamaš[]

"You climb to the mountains surveying the earth,

"You suspend from the heavens the circle of the lands.

"You care for all the peoples of the lands,

"And everything that Ea, king of the counsellors, had created is entrusted to you.

"Whatever has breath you shepherd without exception,

"You are their keeper in upper and lower regions.

"Regularly and without cease you traverse the heavens,

"Every day you pass over the broad earth

"Shepherd of that beneath, keeper of that above,

"You, Šamaš, direct, you are the light of everything.

"You never fail to cross the wide expanse of sea,

"The depth of which the Igigi know not.

"Šamaš, your glare reaches down to the abyss

"So that monsters of the deep behold your light

"Among all the Igigi there is none who toils but you.

"None who is supreme like you in the whole pantheon of gods.

"At your rising the gods of the land assemble

"Your fierce glare covers the land.

"Of all the lands of varied speech

"You know their plans, you scan their way.

"The whole of mankind bows to you,

"Šamaš, the universe longs for your light

"A man who covets his neighbour's wife

"Will [perish] before his appointed day.

" A nasty snare is prepared for him.

"Your weapon will strike at him, and there will be none to save him.

"His father will not stand for his defense,

"And at the judge's command his brothers will not plead.

"He will be caught in a copper trap that he did not foresee.

"You destroy the horns of a scheming villain,

"A zealous [judge], his foundations are undermined.

"You give the unscrupulous judge experience of fetters,

"Him who accepts a present and yet lets justice miscarry you make bear his punishment.

"As for him who declines a present but nevertheless takes the partof the weak,

"It is pleasing to Šamaš, and he will prolong his life

"The progeny of evil-doers will fail.

"Those whose mouth says 'No'-their case is before you.

"In a moment you discern what they say;

"You hear and examine them; you determine the lawsuit of the wronged.

"Every single person is entrusted to your hands;

"You manage their omens; that which is perplexing you make plain.

"You observe, Šamaš, prayer, supplication, and benediction,

"Obeisance, kneeling, ritual murmurs, and prostration.

"The feeble man calls you from the hollow of his mouth,

"The humble, the weak, the afflicted, the poor,

"She whose son is captive constantly and unceasingly confronts you.

"He whose family is remote, whose city is distant,

"The shepherd amid the terror of the steppe confronts you,

"The herdsman in warfare, the keeper of sheep among enemies.

"Šamaš, there confronts you the caravan, those journeying in fear,

"The travelling merchant, the agent who is carrying capital.

"Šamaš, there confronts you the fisherman with his net,

"The hunter, the bowman who drives the game,

"With his bird net the fowler confronts You.

"The prowling thief, the enemy of Šamaš,

"The marauder along the tracks of the steppe confronts you.

"The roving dead, the vagrant soul,

"They confront you, Šamaš, and you hear all.

"You do not obstruct those that confront you

"For my sake, Šamaš, do not curse them!

"You grant revelations, Šamaš, to the families of men

"Your harsh face and fierce light you give to them

"The heavens are not enough as the vessel into which you gaze,

"The sum of the lands is inadequate as a seer's bowl

"You deliver people surrounded by mighty waves

"In return you receive their pure, clear libations

"They in their reverence laud the mention of you,

"And worship your majesty for ever.

"Which are the mountains not clothed with your beams?

ůWhich are the regions not warmed by the brightness of your light?

"Brightener of gloom, illuminator of darkness,

"Dispeller of darkness, illuminator of the broad earth.


The Hymn to Nanna[]

"Princely son, you are radiant as you come forth from the sacred bathing chamber , the mountain of pure divine powers, the abzu shrine, the majestic foundation platform. Bringing terrifying radiance from the marshes."

"Lifting your head in your goodness, greatness and majesty, majestically you extend your arm in order to determine destinies: great An has liberally bestowed on you your kingship over heaven and earth, and Enlil has perfected for you your great and noble filial status and lordship. Enlil has made majestic divinity manifest for you. Determining a destiny for your flowing waters, the majestic lower waters, Enki from within the sacred bathing chamber has placed the good earth, the good mother, at your feet. Enlil has sired you in majesty and lordship."

" Nanna, your crescent moon is called "the crescent moon of the seventh day". Enlil has made known throughout heaven and earth your name, which is a sacred name. Princely son, he has made your greatness manifest throughout heaven and earth. The majestic assembly has bestowed on you his status as Enlil. And from the place of the sanctuary Eridug, Enki has determined for you your lordship and majesty. King of heaven and earth who adorns heaven and earth, from the majestic abzu, the place of the sanctuary Eridug, he has declared your great lordship and your greatness."

" O Nanna, he has chosen as your inheritance that you should surpass the Anuna gods. He has seated you in a sacred dwelling amid their pure divine powers which gladden the heart. He has grandly called the great gods to the food offerings. He has seated them for the ritual which fills the heart with majestic pleasure. He has presented to the gods their offerings which gladden the heart. He has seated you in a majestic place, a sacred place. O Nanna, he has seated you in a sacred place, a sacred dwelling."

"Enki purifies the dwelling for you, he makes the dwelling shine for you. He consecrates the heavens for you, he makes the earth shine for you. He makes the E-kiš-nu-gal, the house of the cedar forests, tower straight upward for you. He makes your majestic residence into a sacred place for you, the foundation of heaven and earth."

"He puts your ritual plans and majestic lustration rituals in order for you, he makes the offering table resplendent for you in the sacred place, he puts in order for you , evening meals, your evening meals and morning meals. He consecrates the lustration rituals and makes them shine for you. He has called. Enki sets up for you the lustration rituals created in his abzu; Kusu establishes the lustration rituals created in their specific house -- the oven for oxen, sheep and bread beside the interior of the bathing chamber, those sacred lustration rituals beside the shrine!"

"Kusu purifies the oil for the house. It is placed in readiness. To ensure the sacred lustration rituals are not neglected, from the majestic marshes, the vast, sacred bathing chamber, this destiny emerges: the E-kiš-nu-gal, with its majestic, sacred dais, perfects the great, majestic divine powers of heaven and earth. You bathe on the majestic banks by the sacred bathing chamber; you put mountain oil on your sacred body; O Nanna, you are placed upon your majestic dais -- wrapped in majestic linen, with raised head, shining horns and the pectoral of lordship!"

"With the majestic oil of the sacred body, the oil of lordship, oil from your great treasury, lord Ningublaga consecrates the hands on his lapis-lazuli quay, the majestic quay, the sacred quay. But from Eridug the stag of the abzu Enki purifies the oil for those hands. So that you should place sacred hands upon your offering table in the banqueting hall, the great place, your steward Kusu -- she who purifies hands and cleanses hands -- consecrates the hands. But from Eridug the stag of the abzu purifies the oil for those hands."

"Ningal is the majestic lady of the abzu shrine, of the majestic dais of Urim determining good and great destinies, and of the E-kic-nu-jal, the sacred and good dwelling. O, the sacred dwelling is the place of your ladyship for Nanna its king! The E-kic-nu-jal, the Agrun-kug, is your house of royalty! Nanna and Ningal bring joyfulness to the dwelling."

"O Suen, sage, majestic lord throughout heaven and earth, your crown is a majestic crown! O Acimbabbar who puts a terrifying radiance in heaven and earth! May his hands be consecrated for him. May they be consecrated like heaven for him, may they be made to shine like the earth for him. May they be as resplendent as the centre of heaven for him. May he lift his head with its crown of heaven and earth, the sacred crown."

ůSuen, the sage lord, majestic throughout heaven and earth, who perfects the pure dais, Acimbabbar who wears the diadem and just crown with majestic, shining horns, lifts his head."

"Sacred oil, pure oil, cleansing oil!"


Hymn to Nungal/Manungal[]

"House, furious storm of heaven and earth, battering its enemies; prison, jail of the gods, august neck-stock of heaven and earth! Its interior is evening light, dusk spreading wide; its awesomeness is frightening. Raging sea which mounts high, no one knows where its rising waves flow. House, a pitfall waiting for the evil one; it makes the wicked tremble! House, a net whose fine meshes are skillfully woven, which gathers up people as its booty! House, which keeps an eye on the just and on evildoers; no one wicked can escape from its grasp. House, river of the ordeal which leaves the just ones alive, and chooses the evil ones! House, with a great name, nether world, mountain where Utu rises; no one can learn its interior! Big house, prison, house of capital offences, which imposes punishment! House, which chooses the righteous and the wicked; Anu has made its name great!"

"House whose foundations are laden with great awesomeness! Its gate is the yellow evening light, exuding radiance. Its stairs are a great open-mouthed dragon, lying in wait for men. Its door jamb is a great dagger whose two edges pierces the evil man. . Its architrave is a scorpion which quickly dashes from the dust; it overpowers everything. Its projecting pilasters are lions; no one dare rush into their grasp. Its vault is the rainbow, imbued with terrible awe. Its hinges are an eagle whose claws grasp everything. Its door is a great mountain which does not open for the wicked, but does open for the righteous man who was not brought in through its power. Its bars are fierce lions locked in stalwart embrace. Its latch is a python, sticking out its tongue and hissing. Its bolt is a horned viper, slithering in a wild place. House, surveying heaven and earth, a net spread out! No evildoer can escape its grasp, as it drags the enemy around."

"Nungal, its lady, the powerful goddess whose aura covers heaven and earth, resides on its great and lofty dais. Having taken a seat in the precinct of the house, she controls the Land from there. She listens to the king in the assembly and clamps down on his enemies; her vigilance never ends."

"Great house! For the enemy it is a trap laying in wait, but giving good advice to the Land; fearsome waves, onrush of a flood that overflows the river banks. When an individual is brought in, he cannot resist its aura. The gods of heaven and earth bow down before its place where judgments are made. Ninegala takes her seat high on its lapis-lazuli dais. She keeps an eye on the judgments and decisions, distinguishing true and false. Her battle-net of fine mesh is indeed cast over the land for her; the evildoer who does not follow her path will not escape her arm."

"When a man of whom his god disapproves arrives at the gate of the great house, which is a furious storm, a flood which covers everybody, he is delivered into the august hands of Nungal, the warden of the prison; this man is held by a painful grip like a wild bull with spread (?) forelegs. He is led to a house of sorrow, his face is covered with a cloth, and he goes around naked. His acquaintances do not address him, they keep away from him."

ůEven a powerful man cannot open up its door; incantations are ineffective (?). It opens to a city in ruins, whose layout is destroyed. Its inmates, like small birds escaped from the claws of an owl, look to its opening as to the rising of the sun. Brother counts for brother the days of misfortune, but their calculations get utterly confused. A man does not recognise his fellow men; they have become strangers. A man does not return the password of his fellow men, their looks are so changed."

"The interior of the temple gives rise to weeping, laments and cries. Its brick walls crush evil men and give rebirth to just men. Its angry heart causes one to pass the days in weeping and lamentation. When the time arrives, the prison is made up as for a public festival; the gods are present at the place of interrogation, at the divine river ordeal, to separate the just from the evildoers; a just man is given rebirth. Nungal clamps down on her enemy, so he will not escape her clutches."

"Then the lady is exultant; the powerful goddess, holy Nungal, praises herself: "Anu has determined a fate for me, the lady; I am the daughter of Anu. Enlil too has provided me with an eminent fate, for I am his daughter-in-law. The gods have given the divine powers of heaven and earth into my hands. My own mother, Ereškigala, has allotted to me her divine powers. I have set up my august dais in the nether world, the mountain where Utu rises. I am the goddess of the great house, the holy royal residence. I speak with grandeur to Inana, I am her heart's joy. I assist Nintur at the place of child-delivery (?); I know how to cut the umbilical cord and know the favourable words when determining fates. I am the lady, the true stewardess of Enlil; he has heaped up possessions for me. The storehouse which never becomes empty is mine."

""Mercy and compassion are mine. I frighten no one. I keep an eye upon the black-headed people: they are under my surveillance. I hold the tablet of life in my hand and I register the just ones on it. The evildoers cannot escape my arm; I learn their deeds. All countries look to me as to their divine mother. I temper severe punishments; I am a compassionate mother. I cool down even the angriest heart, sprinkling it with cool water. I calm down the wounded heart; I snatch men from the jaws of destruction.""

""My house is built on compassion; I am a life-giving (?) lady. Its shadow is like that of a cypress tree growing in a pure place. Birdu the very strong, my spouse, resides there with me. Taking a seat on its great and lofty dais, he gives mighty orders. The guardians of my house and the fair-looking protective goddesses. My chief superintendent, Ig-alim, is the neck-stock of my hands. He has been promoted to take care of my house. My messenger does not forget anything: he is the pride of the palace. In the city named after Enlil, I recognise true and false. Ninharana brings the news and puts it before me. My chief barber sets up the bed for me in the house imbued with awesomeness. Nezila arranges joyous {(1 ms. adds:) and valued (?)} occasions.""

"" "When someone has been brought into the palace of the king and this man is accused of a capital offence, my chief prosecutor, Nindimgul, stretches out his arm in accusation. He sentences that person to death, but he will not be killed; he snatches the man from the jaws of destruction and brings him into my house of life and keeps him under guard. No one wears clean clothes in my dusty house. My house falls upon the person like a drunken man. He will be listening for fanged snakes in the darkness of the house. My house gives birth to a just person, but exterminates a false one. Since there are pity and tears within its brick walls, and it is built with compassion, it soothes the heart of that person, and refreshes his spirits.""

"When it has appeased the heart of his god for him; when it has polished him clean like silver of good quality, when it has made him shine forth through the dust; when it has cleansed him of dirt, like silver of best quality , he will be entrusted again into the propitious hands of his god. Then may the god of this man praise me appropriately forever! May this man praise me highly; may he proclaim my greatness! The uttering of my praise throughout the Land will be breathtaking! May he provide butter from the pure cattle-pen, and bring the best of it for me! May he provide fattened sheep from the pure sheepfold, and bring the best of them for me! Then I will never cease to be the friendly guardian of this man. In the palace, I will be his protector; I shall keep watch over him there.""

"Because the lady has revealed her greatness; because she has provided the prison, the jail, her beloved dwelling, with awesome radiance, praise be to Nungal, the powerful goddess, the neck-stock of the Anuna gods, foremost one whose divine powers are untouchable!"


Hymn to Šulpae[]

"Hero, who shines forth like moonlight over the upper city! Hero Šulpae, who shines forth like moonlight over the upper city! Eminent and famous Šulpae, who shines forth like moonlight over the upper city! Lord of great divine powers, god who appears in glory, Šulpae, of great divine powers, god who appears in glory, lordly in battle, who makes vegetation grow tall in the Land! Lord who raises his great arms, battle-club that smashes all enemies! Pre-eminent brother-in-law of Father Enlil, good youth! Enlil has named your august name."

"Lordly with weapons in the thick of battle! Owner of the rebel lands, lordly in the rebel lands, my king, you are an august god! You are an august god, and your wife is an august queen. You are beloved by Ninhursaga. You are a hero before whom the gods are very fearful. Hero Šulpae, lordly in heaven and on earth, may your name be truly called upon in all the foreign lands! My king, may your greatness be truly called upon in all the foreign lands!"

"Rising flood, storm which approaches mankind! People tremble in prayer before you like frightened birds. Rising, imbued with awesomeness. Of terrifying appearance, endowed with fearsome splendour, you are imbued with great awesomeness. You are a hurricane that approaches mankind, that sweeps men down. In the mountains you measure the fields, emitted from heaven, without compare, who brings daylight to the mountains,battering ,who flashes like lightning."

"Falling upon mankind like a bird of grief, a namtar demon with no hands or feet, suited to the night, prowling at night like a namtar demon, hero Šulpae, are the lord of orchards and gardens, plantations and green reedbeds, of the quadrupeds of the wide high desert, of the animals, the living creatures of the plains. An, king of the gods, has put them in your hands; he has put them in your hands, and you are their lord. Hero Šulpae, they cannot escape your clutches."

"It is his food that anyone who has food eats; it is his water that anyone who has water drinks. And so people no longer call upon the name of their personal gods, but in every mouth the name of him who is their only god. The hand of his god."

"You are the throne-bearer of An and Enlil, the fierce constable of the gods, and the table-steward of Enlil. He addresses a prayer to you. After he has declared his of lament to you, he calls to you."

"You make him shine like gold, and polish him like bronze, then you restore him to the benign hands of his god, shining, and lifts his head proudly, appears gloriously in the Land."


Šir-namšub to Inanna[]

"When I go, when I go -- the mighty queen; when I, the queen, go to the Abzu, when I, Inana, go to the Abzu, when I go to the Abzu, the E-nun, when I go to Eridug the good, when I go to E-engura, when I go to E-ana, the temple of Enlil, when I go to where the great offering bowls stand in the open air, when I go to where Lord Enki is honoured, when I go to where Damgalnuna is honoured, when I go to where Asarluḫi is honoured -- then I bring a dog with me, I bring a lion with me, I bring boxwood with me, I bring ḫalub wood with me. I, Inana, receive the little, when I travel there, when I travel there."

"I go as one who brings forth water; I go as one who brings forth water. When I, the queen, go into the marshes, I go as the [Queen] of the marshes. When I go into the hub of the battle, I go as one who brings forth its brightest light. When I go into the van of the battle, I go as one who brings forth its brightest light. When I follow at the rear of the battle, I go. When I enter the temple of Enlil, I go as its woman who triumphed over the mountains. I utter hostile words against the foreign lands; I seat my husband before me. I utter a challenge in the temples of the gods; I utter a challenge against Utu, against Nanna; I utter a challenge against Sud in its holy [place]."

"The river, the river, good as the vast river, good as the city -- there is nothing as good as this! The river, the noble river, as the vast river, the river, the Euphrates, as the vast river, the Euphrates, as the vast river, good as the city -- there is nothing as good as this! Just as when Enki, the wild bull of Eridug, arrives; as when the mother of the E-maḫ, Damgalnuna, arrives; as when Asarluḫi, the son of Eridug, arrives; as when Enlil eats, as when he drinks, good as the city -- there is nothing as good as this!"

"In E-ana the linen-clad priests prepare an altar for him. Water is placed there for the lord; they address him. Bread is placed there; they address him. He is refreshed in the palace; they address him as follows: "Dumuzid, radiant in the temple and on earth! Mother Inanna, Mother Inanna, your mounds, your mounds ! Mother Inanna, Inanna of heaven, your garments, your garments, your black garment, your white garment!" Inana speaks: "Oh my man who has come to the house: approach !" The priests speak: "Bring forward a chant, a melody of the heart! Approach their place, where they are stationing, where they are stationing, where they are stationing, where they are stationing Enlil in the Ki-ur!""

"Inanna speaks: "Wild bull, face of the Land! I will give life to its man! I will fulfil all its needs ! I will make its man produce correct speech in the shrine, correct speech in the interior hall of the palace."

"The priests speak: "Oh mistress, let your breasts be your fields! Inanna, let your breasts be your fields, your wide fields which pour forth flax, your wide fields which pour forth grain! Make water flow from them! Provide it from them for the man! Make water flow and flow from them! Keep providing it from them for the man, for the specified man, and I will give you this to drink.""


Inanna and Bilulu, An ulila to Inanna[]

"She can make the lament for you, my Dumuzid, the lament for you, the lament, the lamentation, reach the desert -- she can make it reach the house Arali; she can make it reach Bad-tibira; she can make it reach Du-šuba; she can make it reach the shepherding country, the sheepfold of Dumuzid."


"She broods on it: "O Dumuzid of the fair-spoken mouth, of the ever kind eyes," she sobs tearfully, "O you of the fair-spoken mouth, of the ever kind eyes," she sobs tearfully. "Lad, husband, lord, sweet as the date, O Dumuzid!" she sobs, she sobs tearfully.


"Holy Inanna, The goddess, The maiden Inanna, She was pacing to and fro in the chamber of her mother who bore her, in prayer and supplication, while they stood in attendance on her respectfully:


"O my mother, with your permission let me go to the sheepfold! O my mother Ningal with your permission let me go to the sheepfold! My father has shone forth for me in lordly fashion, Sin has shone forth for me in lordly fashion."


"Like a child sent on an errand by its own mother, she went out from the chamber; like one sent on an errand by Mother Ningal, she went out from the chamber. Full knowledgeable my lady was, and also she was full apt, full knowledgeable holy Inanna was, and also she was full apt. Beer stored in remote days, in long past days.


"From the sheepfold to the house of old woman Bilulu. There the shepherd, head beaten in, Dumuzid, head beaten in; Ama-ušumgal-ana, head beaten in.


""The sheep of my master, of Dumuzid, in the desert, O Inanna, a man who was not the shepherd was returning beside my master's sheep!""


"The lady created a song for her young husband, fashioned a song for him, holy Inanna created a song for Dumuzid, fashioned a song for him:

""O you who lie at rest, shepherd, who lie at rest, you stood guard over them! Dumuzid, you who lie at rest, you stood guard over them! Ama-ušumgal-ana, you who lie at rest, you stood guard over them! Rising with the sun you stood guard over my sheep , lying down by night only, you stood guard over my sheep (?)!""


"Then the son of old woman Bilulu, matriarch and her own mistress, Ĝirĝire, a man on his own, fit for prospering and a knowledgeable man -- was filling pen and fold with his captured cattle, and was stacking his stacks and piles of grain. He quickly left scattered his victims struck down with the mace. Širru of the haunted desert, no one's child and no one's friend, sat before him and held converse with him


"That day what was in the lady's heart? What was in holy Inanna's heart? To kill old woman Bilulu was in her heart! To make good the resting place for her beloved young husband, for Dumuzid-ama-ušumgal-ana -- that was in her heart! My lady went to Bilulu in the haunted desert.


"Holy Inanna entered the alehouse, stepped into a seat, began to determine fate: "Be gone! I have killed you; so it is indeed, and with you I destroy also your name: May you become the water skin for cold water that is used in the desert! May her son Ĝirĝire together with her become the protective god of the desert and the protective goddess of the desert! May Širru of the haunted desert, no one's child and no one's friend, walk in the desert and keep count of the flour, and when water is libated and flour sprinkled for the lad wandering in the desert, let the protective god of the desert and the protective goddess of the desert call out: "Libate!", call out: "Sprinkle!", and thereby cause him to be present in the place from which he vanished, in the desert! Let old woman Bilulu gladden his heart!""


"And immediately, under the sun of that day, it truly became so. She became the water skin for cold water that is used in the desert. Her son Ĝirĝire together with her became the protective god of the desert and the protective goddess of the desert. Širru of the haunted desert, no one's child and no one's friend, walks in the desert and keeps count of the flour, and when water is libated and flour sprinkled for the lad wandering in the desert, the protective god of the desert and the protective goddess of the desert call out: "Libate!", call out: "Sprinkle!", and thereby cause him to be present in the place from which he vanished, in the desert. Old woman Bilulu gladdens his heart. Inanna put out her hand to the lad on the ground, put out her hand to Dumuzid on the ground, his death-bound hands


"The francolin went to the birthplace of Dumuzid. Like a pigeon on its window ledge it took counsel with itself; the francolin in its shelter took counsel. Only his mother Durtur can gladden my master! Only his mother Durtur can gladden Dumuzid! My goddess, born in Kuara, the maiden who is the crown of all, the admiration and acclaim of the black-headed people, the playful one who also voices laments and the cries, who intercedes before the king -- Ĝeštin-ana, the lady.


"The maiden, the admiration, Ĝeštin-ana. The sacred one, Inanna replied: ""Let me utter the lament for you, the lament for you, the lament! Brother, let me utter the lament for you, the lament! Let me utter the lament for you, the lament! Let me utter the lament for you, the lament in the house Arali! Let me utter the lament for you, the lament in Du-šuba! Let me utter the lament for you, the lament in Bad-tibira! Let me utter the lament for you, the lament in the shepherding country!""


"How truly the goddess proved the equal of her betrothed, how truly holy Inanna proved the equal of the shepherd Dumuzid! It was granted to Inanna to make good his resting place, it was granted to the goddess to avenge him!


""Let me utter the lament for you, the lament for you, the lament! Let me utter the lament for you, the lament for you, the lament! In the birthplace let me utter the lament for you, the lament! In the desert, O Dumuzid, let me utter the lament for you, the lament! In the house Arali let me utter the lament for you, the lament! In Du-šuba let me utter the lament for you, the lament! In Bad-tibira let me utter the lament for you, the lament! In the shepherding country let me utter the lament for you, the lament!""


"How truly she proved the equal of Dumuzid, avenging him; by killing Bilulu, Inana proved equal to him!

"An ulila song of Inanna."

A Balag to Aruru (Ninhursag)[]

(Translation Konrad Volk)


"The one who hasten~ came along.

"Aruru, the one who hastens, come along

"The beautiful lady,

"The cow in wailing

"When she rises up. a storm rises.

"When she rests, slander rests.

"Like a wild bull in the rebel lands, a poisonous snake

"To the great rivers, the punting pole.

"To the river. a broad vessel.

"For the river you decreed a destiny, that river.

"For the field you decreed a destiny, that grain

" You cursed a river.

"You cursed a field.

"You cursed a spouse.

"You cursed a child.

"Your "Quay-House"

"Your Atu

"Your ibex horn

"Your house like your house - Alas!

"Your city like your city - Alas!

"Your spouse like your spouse - Alas!

"Your child like your child - Alas!

"Princess Ninhursag

"You have killed the young shepherd in the sheepfold.

"Walking in the steppe

"What can stride with you in the sea?

"Princess Ninhursag, Princess

"When you lift your eyes who can escape ?

" When you stride who can get off ?

" Prinecss Ninhursag, Princess

" You devastated the cattle pen: the cows were scattered by you.

"You destroyed the sheepfold: the sheep were scattered in the sheepfold.

"Even children and child-bearing mothers were heaped up together.

"You did not let the high priest carry the magic wand.

"You did not hold back the north wind.

"Woe Profound weeping ! Woe ! Profound weeping!

"Elder sister of Enlil ! Woe ! Profound weeping!

"Princess Ninhursag ! Woe ! Profound weeping!

"The little kiši-plants, the finest kiši-plants,

"The kiši-plants altogether are overturned like a qaqqullu-plant.

"By the small shrubs, the small shrubs,

"By the cut cedars, the cut cedars.

"The soil is ravaged. Woe! Profound weeping!


The Hymn to Ninkasi[]

[Translation Miguel Civil, J.A. Black, G. Cunningham, E. Robson, and G. Zlyomi]


"Borne of the flowing water

"Tenderly cared for by the Ninhursag,

"Borne of the flowing water

"Tenderly cared for by the Ninhursag,


"Having founded your town by the sacred lake,

"She finished its great walls for you,

"Ninkasi, having founded your town by the sacred lake,

"She finished its great walls for you


"Your father is Enki, Lord Nidimmud,

"Your mother is Ninti, the queen of the sacred lake,

"Ninkasi, Your father is Enki, Lord Nidimmud,

"Your mother is Ninti, the queen of the sacred lake.


"You are the one who handles the dough,

"and with a big shovel,

"Mixing in a pit, the bappir with sweet aromatics,

"Ninkasi, You are the one who handles

"the dough, and with a big shovel,

"Mixing in a pit, the bappir with date-honey.


"You are the one who bakes the bappir

"in the big oven,

"Puts in order the piles of hulled grains,

"Ninkasi, you are the one who bakes

"the bappir in the big oven,

"Puts in order the piles of hulled grains,


"You are the one who waters the malt

"set on the ground,

"The noble dogs keep away even the potentates,

"Ninkasi, you are the one who waters the malt

"set on the ground,

"The noble dogs keep away even the potentates.


"You are the one who soaks the malt in a jar

"The waves rise, the waves fall.

"Ninkasi, you are the one who soaks

"the malt in a jar

"The waves rise, the waves fall.


"You are the one who spreads the cooked

"mash on large reed mats,

"Coolness overcomes.

"Ninkasi, you are the one who spreads

"the cooked mash on large reed mats,

"Coolness overcomes.


"You are the one who holds with both hands

"the great sweet wort,

"Brewing it with honey and wine

"You the sweet wort to the vessel

"Ninkasi,

"You the sweet wort to the vessel


"The filtering vat, which makes

"a pleasant sound,

"You place appropriately on top of

"a large collector vat.

"Ninkasi, the filtering vat,

"which makes a pleasant sound,

"You place appropriately on top of

"a large collector vat.


"When you pour out the filtered beer

"of the collector vat,

"It is like the onrush of

"Tigris and Euphrates.

"Ninkasi, you are the one who pours out the

"filtered beer of the collector vat,

"It is like the onrush of

"Tigris and Euphrates.


Šir-namšub to Nisaba[]

(http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk)


"[The House of Nisaba] is destroyed. [The House of Nisaba] is destroyed. It is destroyed. [The House] of Nisaba is destroyed. The house of Nisaba, her of the tablets, is destroyed. The house of [Nisaba[ is destroyed. The house of Nun-bar-še-gunu is destroyed. The E-ḫamun is destroyed. The plants of lamentation have sprouted; the šumunda grass has sprouted. By the walls the long grass has sprouted. Amongst them, the willow trees are everywhere. As for the word of An and the word of Enlil, the angry heart of great An is everywhere, and the malign heart of Enlil is everywhere."


"Nisaba speaks: "In my house, may the moonlight in my house, the moonlight, the glorious sky in my house, the moonlight, the glorious night in my house -- may the glorious sky, the glorious night in my house not leave me (?)! The moonlight is obscured by the walls from my man, from my man. The moonlight, the glorious sky, from my man, the moonlight, the glorious night, from my man, the glorious sky, the glorious night is obscured by the walls from my man.""


""In the moonlight, in the pure place of moonlight I lie down alone. In the moonlight which fills the hills, the pure place, I lie down alone. By the cedar mountains where Enlil lies, I lie down alone. I weep a bitter lament. Lying in the moonlight, I weep a bitter lament. [The moonlight] which sets aglow [the glorious sky] shines forth. I am distraught. The moonlight which sets aglow the glorious sky shines forth. I am distraught. The moonlight which sets aglow the glorious night shines forth. I am distraught [The moonlight which sets aglow the glorious sky, the glorious night, shines forth. I am distraught.""


"Even now that the pure place knows daylight, amid her awe-inspiring splendour, still she weeps. Amid her awe-inspiring splendour, still Mother Ezina-Kusu weeps. Fate and fortune! Amid her awe-inspiring splendour, still she weeps.

"A šir-namšub of Nisaba."


Šir-namšub to Ninurta[]

(http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk)


"King, your headdress hangs loose upon your neck, your kingship is gloriously manifest! Hero Ninurta, your headress hangs loose upon your neck! Hero Pabilsaĝ, your headress hangs loose upon your neck! Hero Ninĝirsu, your headdress hangs loose upon your neck; your kingship is manifest! Your kingship exists in the heavens, exists on the earth. You sit with Enki upon the holy throne-dais."


"The hero, devastator of the mountains, pillager of cities, batters at the rebel lands. The hero Ninurta, devastator of the mountains, pillager of cities, the hero Pabilsaĝ, devastator of the mountains, pillager of cities, the hero Ninĝirsu, devastator of the mountains, pillager of cities, batters at the rebel lands. A king, a storm beating down from above: you are an unrivalled lord. Hero, you are the towering wall of your city; may your august name be invoked! Hero Ninurta, you are the towering wall of your city. Hero Pabilsaĝ, you are the towering wall of your city. Hero Ninĝirsu, you are the towering wall of your city; may your august name be invoked!"


"Since the day it was so decreed, your donkey-foals have [eat of the] gardens and meš trees. Šakkan, the lord of donkeys, has positioned them at your feet. Hero, your awesomeness is spread over the mountains; your grandeur covers all foreign lands. Hero Ninurta, your awesomeness is spread over the mountains. Hero Pabilsaĝ, your awesomeness is spread over the mountains. Hero Ninĝirsu, your awesomeness is spread over the mountains; your grandeur covers all foreign lands. Since the day it was so decreed, your donkey-foals [eat of the] gardens and meš trees. Šakkan, the lord of donkeys, has positioned them at your feet."


"You have taken your place upon the throne-dais of Nibru, where you sit with Father Enlil. You are the heroic son of Father Enlil. He made you stand in service in E-kur. You have taken your place upon the throne-dais of Lagaš. Speak to holy Mother Nanše, so she will cast her protecting arms over you like Utu! May she indicate your station for you! May she who has no fear of your splendour embrace your limbs! May my lady of the beneficent divine powers, with the ornaments of šuba stone about her neck [embrace your limbs]."


"The hero is most precious; his word is august. He is the sun of the Land; the discloser of great counsel in E-ama-lamma. Ninurta is most precious. Pabilsaĝ is most precious. Ninĝirsu is most precious; his word is august. He is the sun of the Land; the discloser of great counsel in E-ama-lamma."


"Hero, on the battlefield the cities of the foreign lands have dedicated a house to you: E-ama-lamma, a house of sanctuary. Ninurta, a house of sanctuary, Pabilsaĝ, a house of sanctuary, Ninĝirsu, on the battlefield the cities of the foreign lands have dedicated a house to you: E-ama-lamma, a house of sanctuary. It is a most distant forest whose edges are widespread. Its extent is indeed with the king, E-ama-lamma. It is a forest, a most distant boat moored on the mountains."


"If someone diminishes its borders, that man cuts off the house of his father at its borders, E-ama-lamma. If someone, though a stranger to his father, diminishes its borders, that man cuts off the house of his father at its borders, E-ama-lamma."


"Its ĝišgiĝal."


"The hero is a powerful force; may his storm leave no rain behind! The hero Ninurta is a powerful force. The hero Pabilsaĝ is a powerful force. The hero Ninĝirsu is a powerful force; may his storm leave no rain behind! My king is the pillager of cities for his father. O his valour! The hero Ninurta is the pillager of cities for his father. The hero Pabilsaĝ is the pillager of cities for his father. The hero Ninĝirsu is the pillager of cities for his father. O his valour! My king. Hero Ninurta, before you the land swells."


"My king, you covered the edge of the sea with rays of light. On that day from the gold of Ḫarali you are Ena-tum. From the cornelian and lapis lazuli of the land of Meluḫa you are Ena-tum. From the dušia stone of the land of Marḫaši you are Enakam. From the silver of fifteen cities you are Enakam. From the copper and tin of Magan you are Enakam. From the silver of Dilmun you are Ena-tum. From the im-kalaga clay of the mouth of the hills you are Enakam. From the gypsum of the shining hills you are Enakam."


"House of the rebel lands! Ah you! You! Ah me! Me! House of the rebel lands, when will your clay return to its abzu? House of the rebel lands, when will your reeds return to their reedbeds? House of the rebel lands, when will your beams return to their forests?"


"The enemy [covers] on the wall, and pays homage. My king, if only he knew your outstanding strength! Hero Ninurta, if only he knew your mighty awesomeness! If only he knew your devouring of men like a lion! If only he knew your [power] like a dragon!"


"Its kišu."


"A šir-namšuba of Ninurta."


Širgida to Nuska[]

(http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/section4/tr4292.htm)


"Enlil decreed your birth in the E-kur! Nuska, Enlil decreed your birth in the E-kur! Lord Nudimmud, the king of prosperity, honoured you in the abzu. Good minister, I shall praise you! Nuska, majestic minister of Enlil, your praise is good and most sweet. My king, I shall praise you in song!"

"You are the light of the good shepherd Enlil, and you have been given a majestic name by Ninlil. You have been given wisdom by Enki. You were born to Enul and Ninul, and so you are united with the lordly seed. You are the E-kur's song. You are a minister fit for his king: Nuska, you are the man of Enlil's heart."

"You are the wise one among the Anuna gods! You are pre-eminent in just speech! You are the good minister of father Enlil! You do not alter what you have spoken justly. You are the light of the shining (heavens). You have been given authority (by Enlil). You have been looked on favourably by Enlil. You are an adornment of the household of Enlil."

"You make pleasing the offering table of Nintud. You issue orders for Ennugi. You [decree] life for the king. You [stride] over the single path of heaven and earth."

"At the command of the household of Enlil, you [provide] the great divine powers, you [provide] the good divine powers, you are the good provider of the majestic divine powers, you make manifest the everlasting divine powers; you are clothed in the divine powers of ma garments and linen garments; you make the princely divine powers prosper, you perfect the multitude of the divine powers."

"The Anuna, the great gods, all honour you with due praise: "Minister, you are endowed with princely strength, [with] the lustration rites. You gladden father Enlil's heart!" Praise be to Nuska, the leader of the assembly!"

"Praise to Nisaba, the righteous, glorious woman who consults with An!"

"A širgida to Nuska."

Prayers[]

Penitential prayer to Marduk[]

[[Adapted from K. Van Der Toorn, Sin and sanction in Israel and Mesopotamia (Assen/ Maastricht: Van Gorcum, 1985), pp. 144–5]]


"I am treated like an irreverent;

"I am unable to lift my face to the light

"The door of the boat has been thrown into the sea,

"I myself live in deep waters.

"The boat, a fierce wind keeps capsizing me.

"I have indeed transgressed the instructions

"the beach is far from me, the dry land is remote from me;

"the ship is stranded on a mountain, I have come close to dying.

"My god deprived me, he forgot me.

"I was in great straits like a bird in a cage;

"I could not make up my mind, my words were each time different.

"I do not comprehend the deliberations I spoke with my own mouth.

"Sickness has deprived me of my pleasant mood.

"My health is carried away, my good looks have been disfigured,

"my good genius and my good fortune stand aloof from me,

"my family has left my sight.

"I lie prostrated in the sorrowful place for mourning.

"Friends and comrades are continually annoyed with me;

"my fellow citizens are continually annoyed with me.

"I transgressed the borderlines of the god, and now I suffer oppression.

"Instead of bread I ate trouble and grief;

"instead of choice beer I drank water of oppression and tears;

"instead of choice beer I drank bitter water;

"instead of a garment I am clad with a heavy sin.

"I have become gloomy like a jackal,

"my joyful and beaming appearance has become dark, what do I know? Who could advise me?

"Both the senseless as a sensible keep experiencing misfortune.

"In order that they might be free from carrying heavy loads

"and treading the clay the gods fashioned mankind;


"How will they learn the will of the gods in heaven?

"Who has ever received immortality from the god?

"Who has ever heard the command of the goddess?

"What do I know? What I have done I do not know;

"let them declared to me the deeds I unwittingly committed.

"Let the water drawer fill my hands with pure water of the god

"and I will visit the shrine of the great gods.

"turn to me, O gods, hear my address,

"be very attentive to my sorrowful cries!

"My ireful god, turn your face to me!

"My Goddess full of fury, accept my prayer!

"Accept my prayer, let your mind come to rest!

"My forgiving lord, merciful Marduk,

"everything evil of which you hear you dispel; my god, absolve, have mercy!

"My Goddess, look kindly upon me, accept my prayer!

"Let my offenses be absolved, let my sin be forgotten,

"let my guilt be canceled, let my bond be loosened.

"Let the seven winds carry away my troubles.

"I want to strip off my evil, that a bird may take it up to heaven;

"let a fish carry away my distress, let the river take it along;

"let the animals of the open country take it from me; let the running waters of the river cleanse me.

"Make me as resplendent as a gold thread,

"that I may be as precious before you as a lulimtu made of elmešu stone.

"Expel my evil, protect my life; I will guard your courtyard and staying near your holy chamber.

"Save me from evil, by you may I be rescued!

"Grant me a vision, that I may have a favorable dream;

"may the dream I have be propitious; may the dream I have be reliable;

" the dream I have make it favorable!

"Let Mamu, the god of dreams, be constantly by my head.

"Make me enter into Esagil, the temple of the gods, the house of life!

"And trust me for my good to friendly hands, to merciful Marduk! 30

"I want to praise your greatness, I want to extol your divine power.

"Let my fellow citizens proclaim your valor!

"Let the people praise you before the gods!"


Prayer to the Gods of the Night[]

[Jeffrey L. Cooley]

A prayer uttered during a nightly extispicy of a lamb's innards.


"The princes are closely guarded,"

"The locking-bolts lowered, the locking rings placed,"

"Though previously noisy, the people are silent,

"Though previously open, the doors are locked."

"The gods of the land and the goddesses of the land,

"Shamash, Sin, Adad and Ishtar

"Have entered into the lap of heaven."

"They do not render judgment, they do not decide a case."

"The night is veiled."

"The palace, its chapel, the cella are obscured."

"The traveler invokes god, but the one who offers a decision remains asleep."

"The judge of truth, father of the impoverished girl,

"Shamash has entered his cella."

"The great ones, the gods of the night,

"Bright Girra,

"Warrior Erra,

"The Bow, the Yoke,

"Orion, the Furious Serpent,

"The Wagon, the Goat,

"The Bison, the Horned Serpent,

"May they stand by so that,

"In the extispicy I am performing,

"In the lamb I am offering,

"You may place the truth."

"Twenty-four lines. A prayer of the night."

Rituals[]

General list of ceremonies[]

  • Kinunu, the ritual of the Kinunu stove (Usur-Amassu, Ninkarrak, Belet-Eanna, Urkayitu)
  • Lubuštu, clothing ceremony
  • Naptanu, sacred meal
  • Tardennu, second sacred meal
  • Rikis lilissi, preparation of the sacred kettledrum (Ninurta)
  • Saraqu, flower sprinkling ritual
  • Šalam biti, ritual of the greeting of the Temple
  • Tebu, religious procession


The Lamaštu Ritual[]

The ritual against Lamaštu consists of using special stones, designated as male and female, tied to different parts of the body with knoted strings of various colors. A person has to remain in this pose for lengthy periods of time, even 100 days.


Lamaštu can be persuaded to leave Earth and return to the netherworld with an offering of jewels, a cloak, cakes and various provisions, malt, bread soaked in beer, sandals, drink and grain.


Another ritual involving the banishment of Lamaštu consist of taking the statues of the seven Apkallu sages, each statue carrying a piece of burnt bay tree wood. Inscribed into the hip of each figure as follows


The first figure: "Day of life, born of Ur"

The second figure: "Day of plenty, gracious son of Nippur"

The third figure: "Day of delight grown up in Eridu"

The fourth figure: "Fortunate day, created in Kullah"

The fifth figure: "Day of brigh face, nursling of Kesh"

The sixth figure: "Lucky day, exalted judge of Lagash"

The seventh figure: "Day that has given life to him who is smitten protection of Šuruppak"


These are then buried at the head of the bed and the phrase: "Oh you seven eldest Apkallu" is recited over then.

Šep lemutti Ma bit ameli parasu[]

[F.A.M.Wiggermann]


  • Whether it be an evil spirit, or an evil alû, or an evil ghost,
  • an evil constable, or an evil god, or an evil deputy,
  • Lamaštu, or Labasu, or the robber
  • or Lilû, or Lilîtu or Handmaid-of-Lilû,
  • or Hand-of-god, or Hand-of-a-goddess, or Fallen-down-from-heaven
  • or Lugalura, or Lugalamaspae,
  • or Fate, or Supporter-of-evil, or Death,
  • or Burning, or Scorching, or Kattillu,
  • or a ghost of the family, or a ghost of a stranger, or anything evil,
  • whatsoever there be, or anything not good that has no name,
  • or plague, or the mufderer, or stroke,
  • or disease, or damage, or loss,
  • or whatever evil that stands in someone's house
  • as a sign of evil, and constantly screams,
  • that causes constant terror and fright,
  • illness, death, damage,
  • theft and losses,
  • and its evil; to prevent them from approaching someone's house
  • and to block the entry of the enemy in someone's house,


On the first day of the ritual:


  • When you make the statues of cornel wood
  • in the morning at sunrise you shall go to the wood,
  • you shall take a golden axe and a silver saw,
  • with censer, torch and [holy] water you shall consecrate
  • the cornel tree, a kusapu loaf you shall place on the cornel tree,
  • in front of Šamaš you shall sweep the ground, sprinkle clear water,
  • set up a folding table,
  • sacrifice a sheep and offer the shoulder, the fatty tissue
  • and the roast,
  • scatter dates and fine meal,
  • set out a cake made with syrop and butter, set out a ada gurru-container,
  • set up a censer with juniper wood, pour out first class beer, kneel down,
  • and stand up in front of the cornel tree, and
  • recite the incantation "Evil spirit in the broad steppe".
  • With the golden axe and the silver saw you shall touch the cornel tree and
  • cut it down with a hatchet; you shall damp it with washing water;
  • then remove the set-out material, kneel down, break the comel tree
  • into pieces, and
  • go to the city; then seven statues of cornel wood, crowned with their
  • own tiara, clad in their own garment,
  • holding in their right hand a cornel-stick charred at both ends
  • and with their left clasping their breasts,
  • — their names you shall write on their left shoulder blade;
  • the first statue is clad in red paste for his uniform,
  • the second one is clad in white paste, the third one is clad in white paste and water is drawn on with black paste
  • the fourth one is clad in black paste, the fifth one is clad in yellow paste,
  • the sixth one is clad in blue paste, the seventh one is clad in orange paste;
  • the statue that is [clad] in red paste,"day of life, offspring of Ur" is the name of the statue;
  • the statue that is clad in white paste, "day of plenty, son of Nippur, good one"

is the name of the statue;

  • the statue that is clad in white paste, "day of splendor, who grew up in Eridu" is the name of the statue; the statue that is clad in black paste
  • "good day, who appeared in Kullab" is the name of the statue;
  • the statue that is clad in yellow paste, " fair faced day, brought up in Kes" is the name of the statue;
  • the statue that is clad in brown paste, "righteous day, exalted judge of Lagas" is the name of the statue;
  • the statue that is clad in orange paste, "day that gives life to the slain, shade of Šuruppak" is the name of the statue; — you shall make.


On the second day:


  • "when you make the statues of tamarisk wood
  • in the morning at sunrise you shall go to the woods ,
  • you shall take a golden axe and a silver saw,
  • with censer, torch and holy water you shall consecrate the tamarisk,
  • you shall place on the tamarisk, in front of Šamaš you shall sweep the ground,

sprinkle clear water, set up a folding table, sacrifice a sheep, offer the shoulder, the fatty tissue and the roast, scatter dates and fine meal,

  • set out a cake made with syrup and butter,
  • set up a censer with juniper wood, pour out first class beer,
  • kneel down, purify the tamarisk with censer, torch and holy water,

and in front of Šamaš as follows shall you speak:

  • "Šamaš, great lord, exalted judge, entrusted with the care of all heaven and earth, the one who gives good guidance to the living and the dead you are. The bone of divinity, the consecrated tamarisk, the holy wood for the image of the statues that will stand in the house of NN son of NN to throw back the evil ones,

I have cut before you. May what I do be profitable, may it prosper."

  • This you shall say, and with the golden axe and the silver saw

you shall touch the tamarisk and cut it down with a hatchet;

  • you shall go the city; then seven statues of Šebettu crowned with their

own tiara, clad in their own garment, you shall place them on a pedestal of tamarisk in a walking pose; they are clad in red paste over their uniform;

  • hold in their right hands a hachet of bronze, and

in their left hands a dagger of bronze, are

  • bound around their waist with a girdle of bronze,
  • bound around their heads with a headband of bronze,
  • furnished with horns of bronze, and bows and quivers

hang at their sides ; — you shall make.


  • Four statues of Lugalgirra of tamarisk, crowned with their own tiara, clad in their own garment,
  • you shall place them on a pedestal in a walking pose;
  • they are clad in paste for their uniform; hold in their right hands
  • bows, and in their left hands arrows, are bound around their waist with a girdle of bronze,
  • bound around their heads with a headband of bronze;
  • you shall adorn their heads with a sundisk of bronze',
  • they are furnished with horns of bronze, clad in ; — you shall make.


  • Seven statues of the weapon-men of tamarisk,
  • crowned with their own tiara, clad in their own garment,
  • you shall place them on a pedestal in a walking pose;
  • they hold in their right hands maces, and in their left hands a cornel-stick, are bound around their waists with a girdle of bronze, bound around their heads with a headband of bronze,
  • furnished with horns of bronze; a crescent of bronze
  • they are clad in white paste for their uniform; — you shall make.


  • One statue of tamarisk of "one cubit is his length", crowned with his

own tiara, clad in his own garment, bound with a girdle of bronze around his waist; * bound around his head with a headband of bronze

  • holding a dagger of bronze seven fingers long in his right hand, an axe of bronze in his left hand;
  • you shall place him on a pedestal in a walking pose, he is furnished with
  • horns of bronze, and clad in paste for his uniform;
  • on his right you shall write "who repels the evil constables" and on his left "who causes to enter the sédu of good and the lamassu of good"; — you shall make.
  • Four statues of Meslamtaea of tamarisk, crowned with their own tiara, clad in their own garment
  • you shall place them on a pedestal in a walking pose,
  • you shall clad them in black paste and in blue paste for their uniform;
  • they are furnished with horns of bronze mounted] in gold,
  • bound with a headband of bronze around their head,
  • bound with a girdle of bronze around their waist, with daggers of bronze mounted in gold; they hold in their right hands a mace with a head of stone mounted in gold, and in their left a battle axe mounted in gold; — you shall make].
  • The four statues of Lugalgirra
  • A statue of Narudda of tamarisk, clad in red paste over her uniform;
  • you shall draw a design with yellow paste - representing a sash around her waist; she is crowned with a red head gear;

you shall hang a harp at her left skie;

  • and a statue of the god of the house of tamarisk you shall make.


On the Third Day:


  • when you make the statues, creatures of Apsû,
  • in the morning at sunrise you shall go to the clay pit and consecrate the

clay pit;

  • with censer, torch and holy water you shall purify the clay pit,
  • seven grains of silver, seven grains of gold, carnelian, hula Vu-stone you shall throw into the clay pit, then prepare the setting for Šamaš,
  • set up a censer with juniper wood, pour out first class beer, kneel down,
  • stand up, and recite the incantation:
  • "Clay pit, clay pit, you are the clay pit of Anu and Enlil,
  • the clay pit of Ea, lord of the deep, the clay pit of the great gods;
  • you have made the lord for lordship, you have made the king for kingship,
  • you have made the prince for future days;
  • your pieces of silver are given to you, you have received them;
  • your gift you have received, and so, in the morning before Šamaš, pinch off
  • the clay of NN son of NN; may it be profitable, may what I do prosper."


  • As soon as you have recited this, you shall speak before Šamaš as follows:
  • "Statues] of Ea and Marduk, repelling the evil ones, to be placed in the house of NN son of NN to expel the foot of evil,
  • I pinch off their clay before you in the clay pit.
  • statues to be placed in the house of NN son of NN to expel the foot of evil
  • I mix their clay with water before you at the bank of the river ”
  • This you shall say, and then pinch off the clay
  • that has not been entered you shall kneel down, go to the city and
  • seven statues of sages whose clay is mixed with wax, furnished with wings and the face of a bird, holding in their right hands a cleaner, in their left hands a bucket;
  • they are clad in white paste, and endowed with feathers by hatchings in the wet paste; — you shall make.
  • Seven statues of sages of clay you shall make,
  • clad in white paste over their uniform; you shall draw fish scales on them

with black paste;

  • in their right hands they shall hold a cleaner, and in their left hands a bucket.
  • Seven statues of sages of clay you shall make
  • clad in white paste, endowed with fish scales by hatchings, holding in their

right hands an offshoot of the datepalm, and with their left clasping their breasts.

  • Seven statues of sages of clay you shall make, endowed with fish scales by

hatching, holding a standard in their right, and with their left clasping their breast.

  • As soon as you have made these statues of sages,
  • two statues of hairies clad in white paste and water drawn on in black paste you shall make, two statues of Viper, two statues of Furious-Snake,
  • two sta[tues of Big-Weather-Beast
  • two statues of Mad-Lions, two statues of Bison, two statues of Scorpion-

Man, male and female, of clay, clad in yellow paste

  • two statues of Lion-Man. two statues of Lulal of clay, clad in blue paste,

two statues of Latarak of clay, clad in black paste

  • two statues of Fish-Man, two statues of Carp-Goat of clay, clad in white

paste, endowed with fish scales by hatchings; you shall ma[ke.

  • Ten statues of dogs of clay you shall make;
  • you shall clad two in white paste, two in black paste, two in red paste,
  • two in blue paste ; you shall colour the sides of two with black paste
  • their names you shall write on their shoulder blade;
  • the name of the first white dog: "do not reconsider, speak up";
  • the name of the second: "do not reconsider, bite you";
  • the name of the first black dog: "destroy his life";
  • the name of the second :"strong is his bark";
  • the name of the first red dog: "Who chases away the asakku"
  • the name of the second: "who overcomes the enemy";
  • the name of the first blue dog: "who repels the chest of evil"
  • the name of the second: "who bites his foe";
  • the name of the first multicolored dog: "who lets enter the good ones";
  • the name of the second: "who makes the evil ones go out".
  • As soon as you have done this,


  • the statues of wood and those of clay, as many as you have made

at night you shall take them to the river and place them there and you shall face them to the east

  • at sunrise in front of Šamaš you shall sweep the ground, sprinkle holy water and set up three folding tables for Ea, Šamaš and Marduk
  • sacrifice three sheep, offer the shoulder, the fatty tissue and the roast, scatter dates and fine meal,
  • set out a cake made with syrup and butter, set out an adagurru-container,
  • set up a censer with juniper wood, pour out first class beer, kneel down, and purify these statues with holy water, censer and torch.
  • You shall take them to the house
  • set them down on a reed mat
  • make them face the east, move holy water, censer and torch past them,


  • Prepare the setting for Marduk, sacrifice a sheep, offer the shoulder, the fatty tissue and the roast, scatter dates and fine meal, set out a cake made with syrup and butter,
  • set out an adagurru-container, our out kurunnu-beer, syrup, milk, oil,
  • set up four folding tables for Anu, Enlil, Ea and Ninurta,
  • sacrifice four sheep, then remove the set out material


  • You shall set up two folding tables for Kusu and Ningirim,
  • sacrifice two sheep, set up as before.


  • To the god of the house, the goddess of the house and the lamassu of the house you shall set up three folding tables,
  • sacrifice three sheep, further ritual set up as before
  • after you prepared the ritual material with appropriate care, with crude bitumen, gypsum, naphta, syrup, butter, fine oil, oil of the pot, holy water, seven censers and seven torches you shall touch the corners of the rooms, the doorposts of the court, the roof and the attic rooms and the windows


  • When you have touched them all, with seven goats-that-hit-evil,
  • seven goats-for-the-torch, seven `living-sheep',
  • seven little pigs, seven `strong-copper's,
  • seven hide-of-the-great-bull's, a drumstick, a copper kettledrum,
  • a red cloth, a whip, half-sila containers, arsuppu-grain, segussu-grain, inninu-grain, wheat, emmer, halluru-peas, lentils, vetch, heaps of flour,
  • you shall rub the house, and the material used for rubbing you shall remove through the gate, and return to its corner. The incantation "You shall

not enter for him through the window" you shall recite.


On the Fifth Day:


  • in the morning before sunrise
  • you shall sweep the house that you rubbed with half-sila containers, heaps of grain, and heaps of flour and throw them into the river,
  • then with censer, torch and holy water you shall purify the house and
  • recite the incantation "Evil go out".
  • As soon as you have done this, you shall move these statues past

censer, torch] and holy water,

  • and before the statue of tamarisk of "one cubit is his length"
  • and before the statues of Lugalgirra and Meslamtaea
  • you shall set up three folding tables, sacrifice sheep,
  • offer them the shoulder , the fatty tissue and the roast, scatter dates and fine meal,
  • set out a cake made with syrup and butter, set out an adagunu-container, and pour out for them kurunnu-beer, syrup, milk, oil from a lahannu-bottle.
  • Then the incantations you shall recite[before them: before the statue of

tamarisk you shall recite as follows:

  • "You are the statue that repels the evil one and the enemy,
  • the one that dropped down from heaven, strong among the strong, perfect,

powerful among the gods,

  • that is endowed with lofty radiance;
  • from the beginning you stay before Ea your father;
  • guard your right and your left, do not fail at your watch.
  • Whether it be Fallen-down-from-Heaven, Hand-of-a-Ghost, or anything evil

that is present in my house and constantly scares me,

  • may its evil on the command of Ea and Marduk not approach me nor my

house,

  • may it move away from my body 3600 "miles"; as smoke may it rise to heaven,
  • as an uptooted tamarisk, may it not return to its place".


  • As soon as you have recited this in front of the statue of tamarisk of

"one cubit is his length",

  • in front of the four statues of Meslamtaea you shall recite as follows:
  • "You are the statues of Meslamtaea, Mastabba, the twin gods, strong sons of Anu,
  • whose dwellings in the clear heavens are exalted,
  • whose thrones are well founded in the broad earth,
  • gods of the watch, who kill the evil ones,
  • who overcome the enemy and chase away Fate,
  • who have taken hold of the regulations of the broad earth,
  • the foremost of the Anunakki-gods.
  • Because of anything evil that stands in the houseof NN, son of NN, with evil

intent, that constantly screams,

  • that causes constant terror and fright,
  • illness, death, damage,
  • theft, and losses
  • to tear it out, I have placed you in the house of NN son of NN, right and left in the gate.
  • May anything evil and anything not good recede 3600 "miles" for fear of you."


  • As soon as you have recited this, in front of the seven statues of Šebettu,
  • the seven statues that hold daggers and hatchets in [their] hands,
  • recite as follows:
  • You are the statues of Šebettu, the great gods,
  • the sons of Enmešarra, who hold furious weapons,
  • having girt a quiver on the side, holding a dagger leveling the mountains"


  • " As soon as you have recited this, in front of the four statues of Lugalgirra that hold bows and quivers in their hands, you shall recite as follows:
  • "You are the statues of Lugalgirra, the fierce gods, who overtake their enemies."


"As soon as you have recited this, in front of] the statues of the weapon-men you shall recite as follows:

  • You are the statues of those holding weapons, gods strong, fierce, ferocious, overbearing, raging, whose knees are tireless.


" As soon as you have recited this, in front of the statue of the god of the house you shall recite as follows:

  • " God of the house, guard your house and the foundation."


  • As soon as you have recited this in front of the statues of the hairies,
  • Birth-Goddess-Snake, Furious Snake, Big-Weather-Beast, Mad-Lion, Bison,
  • Scorpion-Man, Carp-Goat, Fish-Man, Lulal, Latarak, and Lion-Man, you shall recite as follows:]
  • "You are the statues of clay of Apsû I have made in the hand."

Maqlu Ritual[]

The Maqlu ritual is an anti-witchcraft ceremony performed during the festiva of the dead at the end of the Abu month, when spirits are said to come up from the underworld. During the ritual bodies of dead witches are unearthed and living witches are killed. The corpse of the dead witch is burned or fed to the animals.


The incantations of the ritual are as follows:


Netherworld, netherworld, yea netherworld

Gilgameš is the enforcer of your oath.

Whatever you have done, I know,


Whatever I do, you do not know

Whatever my witches do, there will be no one to overlook, undo, release


My city is Zabban, my city is Zabban

Of my city Zabban, two are its gates:

One for the rising of the sun, the second for the setting of the sun

One for the rising of the sun, the second for the setting of the sun

Raising up a broken palm fron and maštakal plant

I offer water to the gods of the sky and say:

"As I purify your yourselves.

May you purify me myself"


I have enclosed the ford, I have enclosed the quay

I have enclosed therein the witchcraft of all the lands.

Anu and Antu have sent me saying:

"Whom shall we send to Belet-seri ?"

Place locks on the mouth of my warlock and witch,

Place the sealing of the sage of the gods, Marduk,

When they cal to you, do not answer them,

When I call to you, answer me,

When I speak to you, listen to me.

When I call to you, answer me.

When I speak to you, listen to me.

By the command of Anu, Antu and Belet-seri.


I am sent and I will go, I am commissioned and I will speak,

Asalluhi, lord of exorcism, has sent me against my warlock and witch

You of the heavens, pay heed ! You of the netherworld, listen !

You of the river, pay heed ! You of the ry land, listen to my speech !


When I present the testimony against my warlock and witch

May the ox set at ease the judge, may the sheep set at ease the judge.

May their testimony be dismissed but mine stand up under scrutiny.

When I present my testimony, may their testimony not prevent mine from being effective.

By the command of Asalluhi, lord of exorcism.


Incantation for the e'ru-stick[]

  • The cornel tree, the link with heaven, the cornel tree, the link with the house of

An, its roots are in darkness, its crown is the table of heaven.

  • Above, it is like a gakkul-vessel, the top is covered with wood,

below, it is like a shoe, the soles are lined with wood, it breaks a path, clears it with fire.

  • With Gestinanna of the silent streets lit goes about,

and with Dumuzi entering the lap of the loved one it goes everywhere, so may it be my helper, may it lead me, and may strong Ninurta lead me.

  • Evil one, go away from before me!

The Basket Ritual[]

While beginning the construction or reconstruction of a Temple, the King will place a worker's basket on his head. This he carries to the site of the temple, after which a figure of the king carrying the basket is burried within the foundation deposit in the walls or below the floors of the Temple under construction.


The Kianag Ritual[]

The Kianag are funerary offerings for deceased royals, within a funerary chapel. The Kianag may be a very large ritual, during which up to 600 people can attend and take part of the banquet, during which the Kašdea, "Pouring of Beer" ritual also usually takes place.


The rituals of vivification of a new Divine statue[]

The following is a set of ritual for when a new holy idol is made. When the statue is made in the bit mare ummani ("the house of the craftsmen"), it is fumigated and a libation is performed.

Then it is subjected to the Mîs-pî, or "washing of the mouth" ritual, with which all traces of human contact are removed. On the second day the Pit pî or "Opening of the Mouth" takes place, using syrup, ghee, cedar and cypress as offerings are presented so that the deity can receive offerings.

The ritual states that the priest must "grant him (the deity represented by t he statue) the destiny that his mouth may eat, that his ears might hear".

Offerings to divine statues[]

These are offerings to statues of gods, and deified kings. These usually consist of butter, beer, bread.

First, the offering tables, paššuru (usually made of gold, called "hurasu") or patiru (small altar, made of reeds) are set in front of the statue. Offering arrangements, called tabnitu, are placed on the table. The table is set by the mubannu, the "arranger of the offering table".

The food is fumigated (saraqu) with barley, flour, aromatics, incense and aromatic woods either before or after the meal was set, with the types of censers used most commonly being the šehtu censer, the qutrinu censer and nignakku censer.


The Cow of Sin incantation[]

The following is an incantation, hailing from Ur, which is used in times of painfull delivery:

" There was a Cow of Sîn, Geme-Sîn by name. With ornaments decorated, tempting of shape she was. Sîn saw her and fell in love with her. The brilliance of Sîn he laid upon her. He appointed her at the head of the herd, the herdsmen followed her. In the lushest grasses he pastured her, at the abundant well they watered her. Hidden from the herd boys, not seen by the herdsman, the wild bull mounted the cow, he lifted her tail."

" When her days came to an end, her months were finished, the cow trembled and terrified her herdsman. His head was bowed, all the herd boys lamented with him. At her crying, at her screaming in labour, Nannaru was downcast. Sîn heard the screaming in heaven and lifted high his hand."

" Two Lamassus descended from heaven. One of them carried “oil-from-the-jar” she touched her forehead, with “water of labour” she sprinkled her whole body. Once again she touched her forehead with “oil-from-the-jar”, with “water of labour” she sprinkled her whole body. When she touched for the third time, the calf fell down on the ground like a gazelle’s young. Amar-ga (Milk-calf) she called the calf."

" Just as Geme-Sîn gave birth normally, may also the young woman in labour give birth. Let the midwife not be held back, let the pregnant one be all right."


The Sailing of Ištaran and Damu[]

In the city of Puzrish-Dagan the ritual of the sailing of Ištaran involved the deity, as a statue, being transported in a boat, sailed by a group of high ranking female priests.

In Urusagrig the same ritual is performed for Damu.


The Throwing Down the Corpse of Dumuzi at Babylon[]

Libation water is poured, descending into grave. The representation of the body of the Shepherd (Dumuzi) is burned, the grave is open.


The Display of Dumuzi at Aššur[]

The representation of the Corpse of Dumuzi is laid to rest from the 27th to the 29th day of the month of Tammuz, each day being followed by the rites: The rites of Screaming, The rites of Release, the Rites of Dumuzi.

The Date Palm Sacrifice to Zariqu[]

On the Fourth Day of the month Kislimu the God Zariqu is accompanied by a musician to the Temple of Adad and then to a pitched tent next to the river bridge, waiting for the arrival of date palms shoot from the Temple of Ea.

The musician takes the shoots to E-sa-bad, arranges them in groups of three and deposits them before the statues of Gula/Ninkarrak and her court. Then the Zariqu procession moves towards the Šamaš gate where further palm shoots are deposited.

On the same day palm shoots are brought across the river to the God Zariqu, take the shoots to Ea's temple the E-kar-zaginna by boat, where the personnel of the temple deposit the shoots in parts of the E-kar-zaginna and E-sagil temples.


The Clothing of Baba and Belet Balati[]

On the 2nd Kislimu, the statue of Baba and her sacred entourage are clothed in a religious ceremony.

The following day the statue of Belet-Balati, a manifestation of Ninkarrak/Gula and her entourage are then clothed as well.

The Gods Coming to Babylon in the month of Šabatu[]

[A.R.George]

"The Gods who come to Kiš with Bel (Marduk), the Divine Sceptres, the Daughters of E-Zida, the Nine Goddesses, Sin Ningal, Nanaya of E-ur-šaba, Usur-amassu, Kanisurra, Ninurta, Mar-biti, Ištar-biti. 28th day of Šabatu, they come into Babylon from Borsippa and spend the night in the E-su, the outer part, in the cella of Belet-Babili.

"Sin and Ningal spend the night in the chapel of Sin in Etur-kalamma. Mar-biti spends the night in the temple of Madanu. Ninurta, the net of E-šarra, spends the night in the temple of Madanu.

"Šabatu, 29tz day, the Gods who come to Kiš with Bel: Bel Godes, Ea goes on his right and the fringe, the sash, bagmles for ankles and wrists, the garment, all go on his right and the Daughters of E-sagil go on the left of Ea. The Divine Sceptre goes on the left of the Daughters of E-sagil. The daughters of E-zida go on the left of the Divine Spectre. Tašmetum goes on the left of the Daughters of E-zida. Belet-Babili, Malukatum, Ninurta, the net of E-šarra, and the gods of Babylon go to E-dubba.

"The gods who come with Bel, they will go: The daughters of E-dubba, the Queen of Kiě, Utulualim, Muštešir-habli, the Divine Weapon of Šazu, Kubu, Utulu, Igalimma, Šulšagana, the Divine Mace, Luhuša, the fifteen gods of E-dubba.

"Mar-biti, Ištar-biti, Nanaya, Gazbaba, Kanisurra, Papsukkal, Lisi, the Divine Standard of Wood, Adad, Wala, Mišaru, Akusitum, the fifteen Gods of E-ur-šaba.

The Royal Goat Sacrifice[]

The King, when making a petition to the Gods, is expected to carry on his breast a kid (a child goat) for the purpose of sacrifice. The King is then expected to perform the act of extispicy and discover the response from the gods.

Ammulets[]

Common ammulets made and either worn or inserted into the foundations of houses for good luck include


  • A dual lion ammulet, having two front part of a lion back to back as a symbol of increased strength.
  • A frog or two fish side by side, symbolise fertility.
  • A sow, symbolising fecundity.
  • A ram, symbolising virility.
  • Ammulets depicting calfs and goats are also fairly common.
  • An ammulet made form haematite or "Kagina" stone is said to ensure a man the destruction of his enemy.
  • An ammulet made from lapis lazuli will make ones god "rejoice in him".
  • A rock crystal ammulet will increase one's possesions.
  • A green serpentine ammulet will bring a person blessing.
  • In Asshur it is common to bury figures of dogs underneath ones threshold to ward off evil spirits. Usually there are ten, five on each side of a doorway.
  • Statues of the mušḫuššu hydra, sacred animal of Marduk, Nabu and Tišpak, were also burried below floors and and afixed to walls.
  • Statues of fish are also used as offerings made during rituals.
  • Plaques and ammulets depicting scorpion men are used to ward off attacks by demons.
  • Statues of bird headed winged beings are buried below rooms in Temples where the sick are being treated.


Ammulet Incantation Against Evil[]

[Frans A. M. Wiggermann]

  • “Arrow”/Šukūdu is his name,
  • He who sounds the battle cry, who wanders the roads and accomplishes everything;
  • He, the divine weapon, who rises furiously against armed violence.
  • May it (the evil) not approach NN son of NN.
  • Luzizi luzizi:
  • May it not approach him.
  • On the command of Ninurta, the first son, the beloved son
  • On the command of Marduk, who lives in Babylon, the city of E-sagil
  • On the command of Aššur, who lives in Aššur, the city of E-ešbar-Enlila
  • On the command of Ea, the king of Apsû
  • On the command of Nabû, who lives in Babylon, the city of E-sagil
  • On the com]mand of Sagkal (Nergal), the king of battle
  • May Šamaš carr[y off his (the patient’s) frightening dreams

Deified Weapons[]

A deified weapon placed in the temple of a God is called a kakku. A divine sword is called a sahapu, a divine arrow is a šaqaru, a divine briddle is a rappu, a divine yoke is a niru.


The Balag[]

A balag instrument is a type of holy musical instrument which is deified, associated with lamentation. Older balag are represented as lyres, while later ones take on the form of drums. Balag gods include the balag-Goddess Ninigizibara and the balag God Ušumgalkalama (Great Dragon of the Land).


Ritual Implements[]

  • The Ala drum, a huge, two membraned drum. Among other instances used to accompany libations during preparations of brick molds for bricks for the construction of new temples. Water is libated in the brick mold shed, while the ala drums and the sim are used to accompany an adab song of the ruler. It is also used during wrestling matches and animal sacrifices.
  • Šem - drum like clanging instrument used during wrestling matches.
  • Tigi drum.
  • Lilissu - a kettledrum used in lamentation
  • Nindabu and Zananu - provisions for an offering.
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